The present study investigates the variables that are believed to influence learners’ in-class Willingness to Communicate (WTC). A total of 247 EFL undergraduate students participated in the study, who were studying in two colleges in Kuwait. The study was conducted with a quantitative research design by using a modified questionnaire to measure the Instructional Willingness to Communicate (IWTC). The adapted questionnaire, which was developed by Khatib & Nourzadah (2015), comprises six IWTC components containing 27 items. The data for each component was presented and followed by a detailed descriptive analysis. The findings revealed that learners’ willingness or unwillingness to communicate is made up of specific influencing variables in several situations within the classroom. The study sheds light on the role of the EFL classroom environment on learners’ communication behaviours. Discussing the results provided some pedagogical implications for language teachers and program designers. Suggestions for further research were provided.
To make their learners achieve good competency in second or foreign language, teachers need to be careful in the choice of techniques, approaches and activities they use. Unfortunately, many teachers and course books separate the four macro skills in their teaching approach. The language which should be seen as a whole is taught in a segregated way, i. e. with whole lessons / sessions on listening, speaking, reading or writing skills. Language, whose prime objective is communication, is thus compartmentalised and leads to poor users. A good reader, listener or writer of a language is not necessarily a competent user of it in real communication situations. This paper proposes the presentation of news in class as an activity to integrate the four macro skills in teaching English as a Foreign Language. It is an exercise which involves the active participation of the whole class, considerably reduces the teacher talking time while increasing that of the learners.
Integrating Local Culture in English Language Teaching to Enhance Learners’ Emotion to Speak English (Published)
Integrating local culture in English language teaching (ELT) is increasingly practiced in non-English speaking countries. There are many studies on local cultural integration in ELT however study on emotional impact is rarely researched. This research therefore aimed at exploring how local culture plays its function to enhance learners’ emotion to speak English. This research was carried out at Pharmacology Institute of Makassar. The method used was a survey study. The samples were selected purposively based on their cultural backgrounds. The data that collected through observation and interview were analyzed by using thematic analysis. The result revealed that local culture functions as the ice breaker to reduce the anxiety in ELT. It also generates learners’ emotional experience then provides fun and cheerful atmosphere in learning. The learners had willingness to speak English since most as they were familiar with cultural input.
The Morphological Interference of Bahasa Mandailing to Bahasa Indoensia and Its Implication to the Teaching Speaking Materials Improvement of Vii Grade Students of Madrasah Mardiyah Islamiyah (Mts Mmi) Penyabungan Ii Mandailing Natal in Narrative Text (Published)
This study aims to find out about the morphological interference of Bahasa Mandailing to Bahasa Indoensia and its implication to the teaching speaking materials improvement of vii grade students of Madrasah Mardiyah Islamiyah (MTS MMI) Penyabungan II Mandailing Natal in narrative text. The research results can be known that in Bahasa Indonesia there is a morphological interference of the students’ Bahasa Mandailing to Bahasa Indonesian like the base word, affixation and reduplication. The research found the realization factor of morphological interference that is internal and external factors. The results of this study have implications for the development of teaching speaking materials in narrative text in the form of materials about narrative essay in which there is a morphology interference of Bahasa Mandailing in Bahasa Indonesia. The results of interview, morphological interference materials of Bahasa Mandailing into Bahasa Indonesia have relevant for the development of teaching speaking materials in narrative text to increase the knowledge about Bahasa Indonesia. The type of research is qualitative research. The method used is descriptive method that tries to describe a phenomenon or symptoms happen in real circumstances. The research data are words in sentences containing morphological interference of Bahasa Mandailing.
Exploration Study for Development Model Student Learning to Speak for Education Study Language and Literature Indonesia (Published)
This study is the initial part of a doctoral dissertation research conducted with the aim at designing a learning model in teaching speaking according to the needs of faculty and students. The learning model is designed based on curriculum of Indonesian Language Education and Literature study program, IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro, UnirowTuban, and UnisdaLamongan, East Java, Indonesia. The development of this model is done to improve the students speaking skills. Research and development are the steps consist of a needs analysis, document analysis, design models, development models and experimental models. Needs analysis was conducted by researchers to the students of the first semester and three teachers’ and the head of study program of IKIP PGRI Bojonegoro, UnirowTuban and Unisdalamongan to get information related to the needs of students and faculty to model of learning speaking. Needs analysis and documents analysis were collected through questionnaires, interviews, and discussions with students and academics. Document and needs analysis in this study a syllabus, lesson plan (RPP) and the model used for this study. This research was carried out by following the nature of the procedures of research and development covering the steps of (1) an exploratory study, (2) the stage of development, (3) the testing phase models, (4) dissemination (Borg and Gall (1983) and Sukmadinata (2008)). The results of the analysis of questionnaires, and interviews revealed that lecturers need guidelines for the implementation of learning speaking. Learning model strategies wite that foster self-confidence in speaking is needed by students’.
INVESTIGATING ENGLISH MAJOR STUDENTS’ ATTITUDES TOWARDS THE EFFICIENCY OF THE “CONVERSATION” COURSE (Published)
In the scope of teaching English as a foreign language, and more specifically teaching speaking, this study reflects the attitudes and anticipations English language teachers-to-be have towards the “Conversation Course” provided by the College of Basic Education in Kuwait. The study is based on the analysis of 106 questionnaires distributed to first year college students registered in the conversation class at the time of the study. In addition, 28 students were interviewed to observe vividly their expectations from the conversation course. Both, the questionnaire and the interviews, aimed at knowing how the students perceived the conversation class at the end of the semester. The study shows that the majority of students feel that they have benefited from the conversation class in different domains; yet, many required a clearer outline of the course. Between their fondness for the conversation course and confusion of its aims, English language students understand their need for the course, and perhaps an extra advanced one too.
This paper focuses on the improvement of Oral Communication Skills (OCSs) of Pakistan’s Public school’s Grade-6 students who have a lack of opportunities and are seldom exposed to the English language generally and OCSs particularly. Since more importance is given to reading and writing skills of English in which results overlook the importance of OCSs and due to which students are found to be silent, shy or have a profound fear of being wrong. It further highlights self developed strategies of students in improving accuracy and fluency in which the National Curriculum for English Language (NCEL) was taken as a guiding tool and action planner through which systematic lessons were delivered in classrooms. Findings of Pre and post intervention phases of four participants revealed that children’s OCSs had shown a marked improvement by giving opportunities to practice oral languages, providing conducive learning environment and using new teaching strategies. This study also claims that code switching, Peer and self error correction, short pauses and speech fillers are inevitable to improve speaking skills in the process of second language learning. It shows new ways in order to improve students’ speaking skills and has implications for second language learners and teachers.