Tag Archives: Sorghum

Participatory Demonstration of Mid Land Sorghum Technology through FRG System in Metta District of East Hararghe Zone (Published)

Pre-extension demonstration and evaluation of early maturing sorghum varieties was conducted in 2019-2020 with the objectives of promoting and popularize improved midland sorghum technologies and to create awareness through giving training and enhance stakeholder’s participation. A total of ten (10) trial farmers were selected from two potential sorghum growing kebeles of Metta District. Two FRGs having 30 farmers were established. Two improved sorghum varieties (Dibaba and Adele) and with local check were planted on the plot of 10mx10m per trial farmers. Training on which a total of 67 participants took part were organized at Metta. The midland Sorghum varieties were evaluated based on their early maturity, yield, Disease tolerance, seed color, seed quality, biomass, and stalk length and food test. The ANOVA of yield performance of the improved varieties (Dibaba, Adele and local) showed 37.73, 34.39 and 24.10 qt/ha at Dursitu bilisuma of Metta district respectively. The average yield performance of Dibaba higher than Adele at 5% probability level and at 1% probability level than local check. As a result Dibaba variety preferred well and better to promote it on wider area and number of farmers

Keywords: Adele, Demonstration, Dibaba, Metta, Sorghum

Review on Key Bottlenecks of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) production and productivity (Published)

Agricultural research has repeatedly failed to achieve the required effect for so many low-income farmers especially in Africa. Some of the reasons for the failure are due to knowledge gap of managing their crop production systems. As a result, there is a persistent need to look beyond the conventional farming system approach to increase production and productivity in sustainable ways. Farmers grow different crops for instance sorghum to win their day-to-day lives. Sorghum is an important cereal crop grown and consumed worldwide. In addition, its varieties are increasingly becoming very important and popular among resource-poor farmers due to their low cost. However, the production and productivity of sorghum is limited by key bottlenecks which could be referred as biotic and abiotic factors. Biotic factors, weeds, diseases, and insects are the most limiting factors which can lead to poor sorghum production and productivity. Unfavorable weather conditions can be considered as some of the abiotic factors. The combination of the two factors can result in a complete loss of yield. Therefore, it has become important to describe the key bottlenecks of sorghum production and productivity including management options.

Keywords: Sorghum, biotic and abiotic constraints, management options

On farm demonstration and Participatory evaluation of improved sorghum {Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench} Varieties at Seyo, Anfilo and Lalo Asabi districts of Western Oromia (Published)

Pre-extension demonstration of sorghum varieties was carried out in Lalo Asabi, Seyo and Anfilo districts of Kellam and West Wollega zones during 2018/19 cropping season with the objective of evaluating best performing and preferred sorghum varieties under farmer’s management condition. Three varieties of sorghum (Chemada, Gemadi and Lalo) were evaluated with full participation of FRG member farmers under their management condition. Different Participatory technology evaluation were employed to enable farmers select variety/varieties which suit their condition. The result obtained indicate that the yield of Lalo variety was significantly higher (P<0.05) compared Chemada and Gemadi varieties with magnitude of 3.54ton ha-1 followed by Gemadi and Chemada with magnitude of 2.995 and 2.688ton ha-1 respectively. Additionally, lodging percentage of Lalo variety was significantly higher with magnitude of 5.74% followed by Gemadi and Chemada with magnitude of 2.29% and 2.06 respectively. At maturity stage the varieties were evaluated jointly by farmers, agricultural experts, development agents and researchers. Seed color, marketability, home consumption, yield, thresh ability, seed size, stock, lodging, disease resistance was selection criteria used by farmers. The direct matrix ranking of variety by farmers gave the superiority of Gemadi variety as their first choice due its seed color, thresh ability, marketability, seed size, home consumption followed by Chemada variety. Based on farmer’s preference, Gemadi and Chemada varieties were selected to be popularized on large scale on farmer’s fields. 

Keywords: Participatory Evaluation, Sorghum, chemada, farmers’ feedback, gemadi.

Diversity Complex of Plant Species Spread in Nasarawa State, Nigeria. (Published)

This research was carried out to assess the plant species diversity complex in Nasarawa State, Nigeria with a view to obtain an accurate database and inventory of the naturally occurring plant species in the State for reference and research purposes. This preliminary report covers a total of nine (9) local government areas in the state.  The work involved intensive survey and several visits to the sample sites for plant identification and enumeration exercise. The diversity status of each plant and the distribution across the state were also determined using standard method. A total number of 275 plant species belonging to 61 plant families were identified out of which the families Asteraceae, Poaceae, Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Moraceae and Papilionaceae were the most highly distributed across the entire study area. There was great extent of diversity in the distribution of plants across all the local governments sampled. However, the highest diversity in terms of different species was recorded in Wamba LGA. The most predominant food crop across the state was found to be Sorghum spp. This preliminary work has provided a baseline data and reference point for future taxonomical and biosystematics stratagem in Nasarawa State.

Keywords: Conservation, Herbarium, Nasarawa State., Plant Diversity, Sorghum

Effect of Chemical, Organic and Biological Fertilizers on Protein Concentration and Protein Electrophoretic Profiles of Wheat Plants Irrigated with Seawater (Published)

Wheat plants grown under 0%, 20% and 40% of seawater, 0, 100, 250 and 500 kg/ha of urea as chemical fertilizer; Rhizobium and Azotobacter as biofertilizer; and 0, 5, 10 and 20 kg/ha of humic acid as organic fertilizer. Soluble, insoluble and total proteins as well as RAPD-PCR were evaluated. To obtain reliable molecular markers for response to salinity in such genotype, RAPD banding patterns by using two primers. It was found that low concentration (20%) of seawater caused an observed increase in soluble protein. While, high concentration (40%) of seawater caused a significant decrease in soluble and insoluble proteins as well as total proteins. Biological and organic fertilizer treatments increased total proteins even at 40% seawater treatment as compared with unfertilized plants at the same level of seawater. The results of RAPD analysis showed that the two primers (OPUPC-75 and OPA18 could efficiently align genomic DNA of wheat. Approximately 88 bands (AF) were amplified under different treatments using the two primers. Monomorphic and polymorphic bands ware present in all individuals, and the mean percentage of polymorphic bands for all treatments was 76.2%, with molecular sizes ranging from 350 to 1900 pb. It was observed also that eight bands of the 88 commonly detected in all the samples, so it could be the specific genus bands of Triticum aestivum species. It seems that the extensive polymorphism detected among seawater and fertilizertreatments elevated the degree of change occurring in DNA sequences

Keywords: Salinity, Sorghum, chlorophyll., electrophoretic patterns, soluble proteins

Sorghum Productivity Trends and Growth Rate for Lesotho (Published)

Aims of paper were: to compare area planted and harvested sorghum; determine production trend over the time-period of 53 years; estimate productivity trend and growth rate; and compare National Cereals supply–demand balance. Time series data collected from FAOSTAT and Bureau of Statistics spanning 1960 to 2013 were subjected to GENSTAT for statistical analysis. Results showed persistent decline in area planted and harvested. Area under sorghum cultivation, production and yield fluctuated erratically throughout study period. Production decreased from 84 000 tonnes in 1975 to 22 000 tonnes in 2010, with only 18% of the period recording yield above 1 tonne ha-1. Increase production area did not always translate into higher yield. Despite low yield, sorghum utilization was 16 000 tonnes compared to 11 000 tonnes produced, thus necessitating an import of 5 000 tonnes, thus there was higher sorghum self-sufficiency level. Promotion of sorghum production and its use should be revisited to address food security and export value.

Keywords: Growth Rate, Lesotho, Sorghum, Trend Analysis