Tag Archives: Solid Waste

The Feeding of Birds on Solid dumps in Limbe Municipality, Southwest Region, Cameroon (Published)

Solid waste management has become one of the most crucial issues facing authorities in the fast-growing cities in developing countries. However, rubbish dumps constitute appropriate feeding sites for many bird species, serving as stop over sites and a source of food for many species of birds, especially in those altered or heavily human transformed areas. The study of bird urban ecology has recently grown as a research area, because urban environments can, like nature reserves, help to preserve bird species. The main objective of this study was to examine the feeding activity of wild birds on solid-dumps in Limbe municipality. The research area was divided into four zones, north, south, east, and western zone. Four dump-sites were randomly selected from each zone and were visited twice a week for research data collection. Observations were done on the dumps from 6:00am – 6:00pm, and the activities of all the birds were recorded during this period. More so, the ecological conditions like weather type, photo-period, weight estimate of dumps, proximity of dump to residential homes, major dump materials, and the land scape were recorded. This study observed that the activity of Passer griseus (27%) and Ploceus cucullatus (49%) were higher as compared to Ploceus luteolus (4%), Lanius collaries (5%), Corvus albus 8%), Bubulcus ibis (5%), and Pycnonotus barbatus (2%) respectively. Moreover, the study revealed a significance between bird feeding activity on waste type, photo-period, and weather condition, r = 0.170 P=0.013, r = 0.146 P=0.034, and X2 = 6.343 df=4 P<0.05 respectively. Additionally, the major solid waste materials on the dump-sites were household waste (68%), market waste (29%), medical waste (2%), and office waste (1%). The implication of birds in recycling tropical pathogens such as salmonella species and related micro-organisms has been documented in many countries, hence, proper waste management strategies needs to be implemented by the authorities to reduce the activity of birds and other vectors.

Keywords: Household Waste, Solid Waste, residential homes, urban environment, wild birds

Assessment of Solid Waste Disposal System in Jimeta, Adamawa State, Nigeria (Published)

Solid wastes are generally generated through domestic, commercial and industrial activities, among others. For proper environmental sanitation and good health of the people, solid wastes need to be disposed properly. The aim of the paper is to assess solid wastes disposal in Jimeta. Data for the study were generated from both the primary and Secondary Sources using the questionnaire administration. For detailed field data gathering, 270 samples were selected form 7 ward of the Local Government Area. The paper has identified several methods of solid wastes disposal of which the open dumping method predominates, followed by the open container method of waste disposal. The waste was often disposed of either on the frequency of once per day, forthrightly or once per week. However, majority of the people believe that the current methods of solid waste disposal are not satisfactory it is therefore concluded that public enlightenment should be carried out to change the attitude of the public towards maintaining good sanitary conditions through proper disposal of solid wastes in addition to the introduction of solid wastes recycling.

Keywords: Disposal, Facility, Sanitary, Solid Waste

An Analysis of Municipal Solid Waste in Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria, West Africa (Published)

Solid waste disposal and management is both an urban and rural challenge; however, this paper focused on municipal solid waste from the perspective of household waste management system in Lafia, Nasarawa State. Questionnaires were randomly distributed to households in eight communities in Lafia metropolis. The quantity and composition of waste generated was determined. The average waste generation per household was found to be 0.65kg/capita/day. The composition shows that 67.6% was made up of biodegradable material while 32.4% were recyclable materials. Lack of adequate waste collection system and proximity to dumpsites were attributed to causing dumping by residents in drains/gutters. Open burning is the major method of treatment discovered by the study. Finally, the paper suggested sustainable environmental education program by the state government to the populace and private sector participation in the disposal and management of solid waste.

Keywords: Household Waste, Solid Waste, Waste Disposal, Waste Management

An Analysis of Municipal Solid Waste in Lafia, Nasarawa State, Nigeria, West Africa (Published)

Solid waste disposal and management is both an urban and rural challenge; however this paper focused on municipal solid waste from the perspective of household waste management system in Lafia, Nasarawa State. Questionnaires were randomly distributed to households in eight communities in Lafia metropolis. The quantity and composition of waste generated was determined. The average waste generation per household was found to be 0.65kg/capita/day. The composition shows that 67.6% was made up of biodegradable material while 32.4% were recyclable materials. Lack of adequate waste collection system and proximity to dumpsites were attributed to causing dumping by residents in drains/gutters. Open burning is the major method of treatment discovered by the study. Finally the paper suggested sustainable environmental education program by the state government to the populace and private sector participation in the disposal and management of solid waste.

Keywords: Household Waste, Solid Waste, Waste Disposal, Waste Management

VULNERABILITY ASSESSMENT OF BOREHOLES LOCATED CLOSE TO LEMNA LANDFILL IN CALABAR METROPOLIS, NIGERIA (Published)

Solid waste mostly garbage, agriculture and industrial waste are disposed in landfills where it decomposes and produces a leachate that can contaminate underlying groundwater. Waste management has remained an undisputable environmental problem in Nigeria. This has manifested in the form of indiscriminate disposal of wastes and illegal landfills and dumps along main roads and streets, and the problem is compounded by the generation of enormous quantities of waste.  In the developing world such as Nigeria, borehole water users hardly treat water before usage and this poses a serious threat to their health since the utilized this untreated water for consumption, domestic uses, agriculture and industrial purposes.  Groundwater studies have ascertained that leachates from landfill migrate in the direction of groundwater flow to contaminate the underlying aquifer.  The study assessed the vulnerability of borehole located close to Lemna dumpsite in Calabar Municipality.  Borehole water samples were collected from ten designated boreholes and their physicochemical parameters were analysed.  The length, breadth and depth of the landfill were measured with a tape and meter rule. The length of the landfill was 960m, the width 430m and the depth 180m. Geographical positioning system (GPS) was used to obtain the static water level from where the groundwater flow map was deduced.  Parameters such as BOD, DO, Fe2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, faecal and total coliform count values when compared with world health organization standard (WHO) were seen to exceed the recommended value.  The research revealed that groundwater flow from the North to South, carrying along with it dissolved waste materials and leachates which infiltrates into the borehole water and contaminates it, thereby rendering it unsuitable for drinking and domestic use.  The researchers therefore suggested that the base of landfills should be properly coated with concrete or cellophanematerials to avoid leachates infiltrating into the groundwater.  Recycling of municipal waste, proper education and awareness on solid waste management should be encouraged in the study area.

Keywords: Contaminants And Infiltration, Landfill, Leachate, Solid Waste

Vulnerability Assessment of Boreholes Located Close To LEMNA Landfill in Calabar Metropolis (Review Completed - Accepted)

Solid waste mostly garbage, agriculture and industrial waste are disposed in landfills where it decomposes and produces a leachate that can contaminate underlying groundwater. Waste management has remained an undisputable environmental problem in Nigeria. This has manifested in the form of indiscriminate disposal of wastes and illegal landfills and dumps along main roads and streets, and the problem is compounded by the generation of enormous quantities of waste.  In the developing world such as Nigeria, borehole water users hardly treat water before usage and this poses a serious threat to their health since the utilized this untreated water for consumption, domestic uses, agriculture and industrial purposes.  Groundwater studies have ascertained that leachates from landfill migrates in the direction of groundwater flow to contaminate the underlying aquifer.  The study assessed the vulnerability of borehole located close to Lemna dumpsite in Calabar Municipality.  Borehole water samples were collected from ten designated boreholes and their physicochemical parameters were analysed.  The length, breadth and depth of the landfill were measured with a tape and meter rule. The length of the landfill was 960m, the width 430m and the depth 180m. Geographical positioning system (GPS) was used to obtained the static water level from where the groundwater flow map was deduced.  Parameters such as BOD, DO, Fe2+, Ni2+, Zn2+, faecal and total coliform count values when compared with world health organization standard (WHO) were seen to exceed the recommended value.  The research revealed that groundwater flow from the North to South, carrying along with it dissolved waste materials and leachates which infiltrates into the borehole water and contaminates it, thereby rendering it unsuitable for drinking and domestic use.  The researchers therefore suggested that the base of landfills should be properly coated with concrete or cellophanematerials to avoid leachates infiltrating into the groundwater.  Recycling of municipal waste, proper education and awareness on solid waste management should be encouraged in the study area.

Keywords: Contaminants, Infiltration, Landfill, Leachate, Solid Waste