Tag Archives: soils

Determination of the Presence and Level of Heavy Metals in Soils of Automobile Workshops in Awka, Anambra State (Published)

This study determined the presence and levels of heavy metals in automobile workshop soils in Awka Anambra state. Soil samples were collected from four automobile workshops. The soil samples were analysed for heavy metal contents; Lead (Pb), Manganese (Mn), Zinc (Zn), Nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu), Chromium (Cr), Mercury (Hg), and Iron (Fe). The soil samples were digested and the filtrate subjected to quantitative analysis using Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS). One-way Anova, and one sample t-test, were used to test the hypotheses postulated. The results indicated the presence of all the metals under consideration in the soil samples. The concentrations of the metals in the soils of the automobile workshops were compared with NESREA (National Environmental Standards and Regulations Enforcement Agency) standard and the result showed that Cu in sample A was greater than the standard while others were below it; Cr in sample D was lower than the standard while others were above it; metal contents of Zn, Pb, Cd, and Ni in all samples were below the standard while Fe and Mn limits were not specified by NESREA. The study concluded that the activities of automobile workshops contaminate soil with heavy metals which automatically have direct and indirect effect man as it can be transported through the food chain. It is hence recommended that: regulatory bodies be set up to monitor the activities of automobile workshops and policies be enacted whereby automobile workshops should be located very far from residential areas. Further research should be carried out to ascertain the effects of those heavy metals on plants, groundwater, and human health.

 

Keywords: Automobile, Heavy Metals, Plants, presence and level, soils

Review on Climate change impact on soils: adaptation and Mitigation (Published)

According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, global temperatures are expected to increase 1.1 to 6.4°C during the 21st century, and precipitation patterns will be altered by climate change. Soils  are  intricately  linked  to  the  atmospheric–climate  system  through  the  carbon,  nitrogen,  and  hydrologic cycles.  Altered climate will, therefore, have an effect on soil processes and properties, and at the same time, the soils themselves will have an effect on climate. Study of the effects of climate change  on soil processes and properties  is  still  nascent,  but  has  revealed  that  climate  change  will  impact  soil  organic  matter  dynamics, including  soil  organisms  and  the  multiple  soil  properties  that  are  tied  to  organic  matter,  soil  water,  and  soil erosion.  The  exact  direction  and  magnitude  of  those  impacts  will  be  dependent  on  the  amount  of  change  in atmospheric gases, temperature, and precipitation amounts and patterns. Recent studies give reason to believe at least some soils may become net sources of atmospheric carbon as temperatures rise and that this is particularly true of high latitude regions with currently permanently frozen soils. Soil erosion by both wind and water is also likely to increase. However, there are still many things we need to know more about. How climate change will affect the nitrogen cycle and, in turn, how the nitrogen cycle will affect carbon sequestration in soils is a major research need, as is a better understanding of soil water–CO2 level–temperature relationships. Knowledge of the response of plants to elevated atmospheric CO2 given limitations in nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus and associated  effects  on  soil  organic  matter  dynamics  is  a  critical  need.  There  is  also  a  great  need  for  a  better understanding  of  how  soil  organisms  will  respond  to  climate  change  because  those  organisms  are  incredibly important in a number of soil processes, including the carbon and nitrogen cycles.

 

Keywords: Adaptation, Climate Change, Impact, Mitigation, Review, soils

The Physio-Chemical Characteristics of Agbor Soils in Delta State and the Implications for Agricultural Development (Published)

The purpose of this research work is to assess the effective nature of soil in agricultural planning and development within the context of its properties and structure. Six soil profiles was studied with the physical and chemical properties. Samples of soils were collected from the six profiles air dried and sent to the laboratory for analysis using the recommended testing method. All soils parameters both physical and chemical displayed various level of variability in the research work. It was discovered that the soils of the region have agricultural potentials for the production of cocoa, rubber and oil palm as well as food crops

Keywords: Agbor, Chemical., Physical, Region, soils

Potassium Supplying Capacity of Some Low Activity Clay Soils in Benue State (Published)

Laboratory, pot and field studies were conducted with some low activity clay Soils in Benue State to evaluate their potassium (K) supplying capacity using equilibrium parameters as measured by quantity, intensity and activity indices. The soils were Daudu, Tse-Kough, Tse-Agbakor and Mbachor. Farmers’ fields were used to verify the findings of these experiments. Routine soil analysis was done using standard procedures. Potassium fractions were estimated using standard procedure. The Total K content of the soils varied from 57.06 C mol Kg-1 at Daudu to 64.63 C molkg-1 at Mbachor with the non exchangeable K constituting 57.16%, 0.40% and 0.13%  respectively of the total K in the soils. The potassium buffer capacity (PBC) which measures the ability of the soils to maintain K intensity in solution ranged from 1.98 at Daudu to 3.56 at Mbachor indicating a slow release of K in these soils. The specifically bonded K which constituted the bulk of the labile K (KL) was generally low.  Response of Soybean (Glycine max merr. (L) to K application was observed in all the soils studied and the critical K value for optimum yield of the crop using  standard  procedure was determined to be 0.33 C mol Kg-1. It was concluded that response of Soybean to K application would be probable in the Daudu and Tse-Kough Soils while response to K application will not be probable with the Tse-Agbakor and Mbachor Soils.

Keywords: Benue State, Clay, Potassium, Supplying, soils

Phosphorus Adsorption Isotherms of Some Low Activity Clay Soils As Influenced By Soil Properties and Their Effect on Fertilizer P Recommendations and Yield of Soybean (Glycine Max (L.) Merr.) In Benue State, Nigeria (Published)

The relationship between labile P sorbed to the soil surface and solution P can be described by a quantity-intensity relationship which shows P sorption or desorption as a function of P in the equilibrium solution. Twelve soils in Benue state representing Alfisols, Ultisols and Inceptisols were therefore used to examine the influence of soil properties on the shape and placement of their adsorption curves and yield of soybean. Sorption characteristics were determined in 0.01 M CaCl2 solutions of various P concentrations. For each soil, the amounts of P that gave 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.100, 0.125, 0.150, 0.175, 0.200, 0.225, 0.250 mg kg-1 solution concentrations were estimated from adsorption curves. In the greenhouse, 4 kg of soil from each location was placed in plastic pots. Amount of P estimated from sorption study was added as KH2PO4. The treatments were laid out in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) and soybean seed variety (TGx 1448-2E) was planted and growth and development observed to maturity. Optimum solution P concentration (SPC) was determined for each soil in relation to yield. At harvest, SPC that gave highest grain yield was evaluated for each soil and the quantity of P required (SPR) to achieve this concentration was calculated. Consequently, Odoba would require highest P fertilizer application (604.84 Kg P ha-1), (Tor-Donga 112.31, Abeda-Mbadyul 105.93) would require medium fertilization, (Utonkon 72.75, Katsina-Ala and Ofugo 67.64, Akoodo-Mbakor and Nor 61.26, Ogyoma 39.56, Otobi 33.18 and Abaji-Kpav 22.97 Kg P ha-1)would require low fertilization while Vanam (2.55 Kg P ha-1) would require the least.

Keywords: Adsorption, Fertilizer, Growth, Isotherms, Phosphorus, soils, soybean