Tag Archives: Soil

The Impact of Rock Crushing On the Quality of Air and Soil Within and Outside the Crushing Site (Published)

This study investigates the effect of rock crushing on Ishiagu environment in Enugu State, Nigeria. The quality of air dust and soil samples within and outside the crushing area was analyzed by taking samples of rock dust), soil and underground water. The amount of iron, zinc, copper, lead, cadmium, chromium and nickel were determined in the rock dust and soil samples collected within and outside the crushing sites. The results indicated that the concentration of metals in all samples were significant ranging from 1425-48180mg/kg in air dust sample, 120-44000mg/kg in soil samples while the metals in the underground water was seen to be decreasing as the distance from the crushing site increased .The underground water samples were observed to have high total dissolved solids (754,587 and 604) ppm respectively, total chloride and total hardness. All underground water samples were in excess of 150 mg/l total chloride with pH values between the ranges of 4.5 to 5.5 which is acidic.

Keywords: Concentration, Metals, Soil, Water, rock, rock dust

Lead (Pb) Mining in Ebonyi State, Nigeria: Implications for Environmental And Human Health Risk. (Published)

Recent cases of lead (Pb) poisoning in Nigeria which has claimed the lives of over 500 children has been traced to mining. Forty soil samples were collected from the vicinity of four mining sites (A – D) scattered across the three senatorial zones of the state.  These samples were sieved to <125 µm particle size fractions and digested using hotplate. Lead levels in these samples were determined using Flame atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (FAAS). The results revealed that the mean concentration of Site A was 7177 mg/kg, Site B = 5051 mg/kg, Site C = 3198 mg/kg and Site D = 7881 mg/kg. These values were compared with soil guideline values (SGVs) from six countries and they were all in excess of the SGVs. It is to be noted that when Pb levels exceed SGVs, it signifies a level of risk to man and his environment.

Keywords: Mining, Soil, children, health risk, lead (Pb)

Response of Fungi to Diesel Oil Contamination of a Soil in Nigeria (Published)

Since petroleum production began, pollution of natural environments by crude oil and its products had been devastitating; exposure of microorganisms to the crude oil contamination could have some measurable effects on soil microbial community and in turn alter soil fertility. This study therefore focused on the response of fungi to diesel oil contamination in a soil. Soil samples (3kg weight) were contaminated with 90ml, 180ml, and 270ml volumes of diesel oil; uncontaminated soil (0ml volume) served as control. Microbiological analysis of the soil samples was carryout on saboraud dextrose agar and mineral salts oil ager at days 1, 7, 14 and 21 intervals after addition of diesel oil to the soils. Mean counts of heterotrophic fungi (X103CFU G-1 soil) were: 0ml, 7.0, 90ml, 4.5, 180ml, 4.5, and 270ml, 4.0. Mean densities of hydrocarbon-utilizing fungi (X102CFU G-1 soil) for 0ml, 90ml, 180ml, and 270ml soil options were: 5.0, 3.5, 6.8 and 3.0 respectively. Fungal organisms isolated include Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus species, Fusarium species, Mucor species, Rhizopus species and Saccharomyces species, which occurred in control soil and polluted soils but Mucor species did not occur in 90ml soil option. The study showed that heterotrophic fungi responded negatively to addition of diesel oil to soil while hydrocarbon-utilizing fungi showed both positive and negative response depending on the volume of diesel added to soil. Occurrence of fungal organisms in polluted soils explained the fact that fungi are capable of utilizing diesel oil and can be used in cleanup operations in crude oil spillage sites.

Keywords: Contamination, Diesel Oil, Response, Soil, fungi

Effect of Adding Different Organic Fertilizers in the Absorption of Some of Nutrient Elements from Soil in Properties of Plant Growth and Yield of Cucumber Plant (Published)

The experiment was conducted in one of the greenhouses of the College of Agriculture – University of Wasit for spring season 2013 to study the effect of adding some organic fertilizers in the growth of cucumber plant . The experiment included 6 Treatments : (T1 comparative treatment ( without any addition ), T2 adding  ground for Fertilizer organic Humic plus by 250 g / Dunam , T3 addingthe organic nutrient Vegeamino Foliar with concentration of 1 ml / l , T4 adding compost Humic plus Foliar concentration of 3 g / l , T5 adding organic fertilizer Humic plus Foliar + Vegeamino and T6 adding organic fertilizer Humic plus ground addion + Vegeamino) . The experiment was carried out using a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replications and tested moral differences between averages , according to the less significant moral differences between averages and the probability of 0.05.The results showed a significant superiority of treatment T6 ( Adding Organic Fertilizer Humic plus Add ground + Vegeamino Foliar) in the dry weight of the plant and the percentage of chlorophyll , nitrogen ,and potassium , and holds rate per plant , and the sum total of the plastic house  as it was ( 23.99 g , 52.40 % , 4.50% , 2.970 % , 0.641 kg 0.721 kg) , respectively, with no significant difference for treatment T2 in the percentage of chlorophyll , nitrogen , potassium and rate yield per plant sum total of the plastic house which recorded ( 51.19 % , 4.48 % , 2.960 % , 0.585 kg 0.681 kg). From this study , we are conclude that using Organic Fertilizer Humic plus  as ground applied  + Vegeamino as foliar applied can be enhance  from cucumber growth  and increase the yield it .

Keywords: Nutrient Elements, Organic Fertilizers, Plant Growth Cucumber Plant, Soil

The Role of Soil and Land Features of Iran Native Architecture &Energy Management and Sustainability (Published)

Today, management of consumption energy is important for architecture. Traditional buildings in Iran have employed some ingenious passive techniques especially in hot regions in order to restore thermal comfort and coordinate with the local environment and climate. Architecture soil is ancient Iranian architecture and the use of soil qualities such as high thermal capacity and thermal 7-hour delay in the management of energy consumption and achieves sustainable architecture and green. In this research, study native architecture in order to introducing appropriate solution for achieving sustainability. The methodology of this study is descriptive –analytic and collecting data is done by documents-library.at finally, has been proposed strategies in about mention method in order to achieving sustainable architecture in Iran.

Keywords: Energy, Iran Native Architecture, Soil, Sustainable Architecture

The Role of Soil and Land Features of Iran Native Architecture and Energy Management and Sustainability (Published)

Today, management of consumption energy is important for architecture. Traditional buildings in Iran have employed some ingenious passive techniques especially in hot regions in order to restore thermal comfort and coordinate with the local environment and climate. Architecture soil is ancient Iranian architecture and the use of soil qualities such as high thermal capacity and thermal 7-hour delay in the management of energy consumption and achieves sustainable architecture and green. In this research, study native architecture in order to introducing appropriate solution for achieving sustainability. The methodology of this study is descriptive –analytic and collecting data is done by documents-library.at finally, has been proposed strategies in about mention method in order to achieving sustainable architecture in Iran.

Keywords: Energy, Iran Native Architecture, Soil, Sustainable Architecture

Quantifying the Productivity of Spent Oil Contaminated Soil Amended With Organic Wastes Using Productivity Index in Abakaliki, South Eastern Nigeria (Published)

A study on quantifying the productivity of spent oil contaminated soil amended with organic wastes using productivity index (PI) was carried out at the Teaching and Research Farm of the Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources Management, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki. The study involved a modification of Pierce et al. productivity index model with simultaneous exclusion of sufficiencies for aeration and electrical conductivity. The applicability and validity of the modified Pierce et al. productivity index model were determined using maize as a test crop. Result showed highly significant (r=0.96 at P<0.01) relationship between PI and grain yield of maize. The general mean PI and grain yield of maize were 0.32 and 0.94 tha-1for the treatments. The mean productivity indices with grain yield of maize were 0.20 and 0.50tha-1, 0.40 and 1.2otha-1, 0.26 and 0.80 tha-1 and 0.42 and 1.3tha-1 for control, burnt rice husk dust, unburnt rice husk dust and saw dust amended soils, respectively. The burnt rice husk dust which had highest prediction of 0.58 also predicted highest grain yield of maize of 2.2tha-1. The grain yield of maize followed productivity index predictions. Organic wastes could be recommended for attenuating problem of spent oil contamination of soil in Abakaliki.

Keywords: Amended, Contamination, Organic wastes, Productivity, Quantifying, Soil, Spent oil.

ENGINEERING PROPERTIES AND USES OF SOIL DERIVE FROM MAASTRITCHIAN AJALI FORMATION IN A PART OF SE NIGERIA (Published)

The study is necessitated by the recent move by Imo State government of Nigeria to raise Okigwe town to urban status. Ajali Formation being the prominent geological terrain in Okigwe area, most structures would be erected on the soil derived from it. The parameter measured include grain size, atterberg limits, and compaction, shear strength, permeability and porosity as well as bulk density. The result shows that the soil underlain by Ajali Formation within Okigwe area is sandy silt with low clay content and has plasticity index, bulk density, porosity and permeability values of 9.65%, 2.06%,kg/m3, 0.45 and 0.35cm/s respectively.The value for the optimum moisture content (OMC) maximum dry density(MDD) shear strength, angle of internal friction are 13.5%, 2.06kg/m3, 106.86KN/M2 and 28.4o. These values indicate that the soil derived from Maastrichtian Ajali Formation within Okigwe area of south eastern Nigeria is of high strength, porous and permeable and can be used as a recharge site for regional aquifer, but cannot be used as a waste disposal area or for road construction. The soil due to its low plasticity index with no swelling characteristics and high shear strength is a good site for building foundations, but cannot be used in dam construction. It is ideal for projects requiring good drainage and embankments. However, for the soil to be used in any engineering construction works, it has to be compacted to its maximum dry density value of 2.06kg/m3 within the range of optimum moisture content of 13.5% as to achieve maximum strength.

Keywords: Ajali Formation, Engineering Properties, Okigwe, SE Nigeria, Soil, Uses

Carbon Sequestration as a Climate Change Mitigation Activity-A Review (Review Completed - Accepted)

An unprecedented increase in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) from fossil fuel combustion and land use change necessitates identification of strategies for mitigating the threat of the attendant global warming. However, the challenges of climate change can be effectively overcome by the storage of carbon in terrestrial carbon sinks viz. plants, plant products and soils for longer periods of time. Carbon sequestration in this regard is truly a win–win strategy. It restores degraded soils, enhances biomass production, purifies surface and ground waters, and reduces the rate of enrichment of atmospheric CO2 by offsetting emissions due to fossil fuel.

Keywords: Biomass, Carbon Dioxide, Carbon Sequestration, Forest, Fossil Fuel, Grassland, Soil

THE PREVALENCE OF SOIL TRANSMITTED HELMINTHES AMONG SCHOOL CHILDREN IN IFEDORE LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF ONDO STATE, NIGERIA (Published)

The current status of intestinal helminthes was assessed among schools children in Ifedore Local Government of Ondo State, Nigeria. A total of 180 faecal samples were collected randomly from each of the primary schools sampled. Detection and identification were by direct microscopy. Questionnaires were administered to identify the major activities and behaviour of pupils, their knowledge about the aetiology and control of intestinal helminthes.

Chi- square was used to determine if there was any relationship between age and sex on the occurrence of the helminthes. Of the 180 pupils examined, 88 (48.9%l) were infected. Three parasite species observed were Ascaris lumbricoides (22.2%), Strongyloides stercoralis (12.8%), Hookworm (10.6%) and for multiple infection (3.3%). Females had higher prevalence (25.6%) than males (23.3%). No significant association was observed among worm infectivity, age and sex in the population studied. The study revealed that poor hygienic practices and unsanitary condition were responsible for the high prevalence of these helminthes. Health Education through primary health care could be used as a control measure

 

Keywords: Helminthes, Hookworm, Infection, Prevalence, Soil

Engineering Properties And Uses Of Soil Derive From Maastritchian Ajali Formation In A Part Of Se Nigeria (Review Completed - Accepted)

The study is necessitated by the recent move by Imo State government of Nigeria to raise Okigwe town to urban status. Ajali Formation being the prominent geological terrain in Okigwe area, most structures would be erected on the soil derived from it. The parameter measured include grain size, atterberg limits, and compaction, shear strength, permeability and porosity as well as bulk density. The result shows that the soil underlain by Ajali Formation within Okigwe area is sandy silt with low clay content and has plasticity index, bulk density, porosity and permeability values of 9.65%, 2.06%,kg/m3, 0.45 and 0.35cm/s respectively.

The value for the optimum moisture content (OMC) maximum dry density(MDD) shear strength, angle of internal friction are 13.5%, 2.06kg/m3, 106.86KN/M2 and 28.4o. These values indicate that the soil derived from Maastrichtian Ajali Formation within Okigwe area of south eastern Nigeria is of high strength, porous and permeable and can be used as a recharge site for regional aquifer, but cannot be used as a waste disposal area or for road construction. The soil due to its low plasticity index with no swelling characteristics and high shear strength is a good site for building foundations, but cannot be used in dam construction. It is ideal for projects requiring good drainage and embankments. However, for the soil to be used in any engineering construction works, it has to be compacted to its maximum dry density value of 2.06kg/m3 within the range of optimum moisture content of 13.5% as to achieve maximum strength.

 

Keywords: Ajali Formation, Engineering Properties, Okigwe, SE Nigeria, Soil, Uses

Accumulation and Contamination of Heavy Metals in Soil and Vegetation from Industrial Area of Ikirun, Osun State, Nigeria (Published)

Samples of soil and vegetation were analyzed for their heavy metal contents using standard methods. Samples were collected around a steel rolling mill along Ikirun, Osogbo road, Osun State. Results of vegetation revealed highest iron concentration (17305.00mg/kg), highest chromium concentration (1088.00mg/kg), highest nickel concentration (303.40mg/kg), and highest lead concentration (38.88mg/kg) at VG 7. Soil analysis showed highest iron concentration at SS3 (29895 mg/kg), highest cobalt concentration at SS6 (510 mg/kg), highest nickel concentration at SS6 (882 mg/kg), highest lead concentration at SS7 (2525 mg/kg) and highest chromium concentration at SS6 (2935 mg/kg). This suggests that the area was grossly contaminated mostly with iron, chromium, lead and nickel especially in soil. Plant concentration factor was in the range 0.03 – 0.63 for iron, 0.10 – 0.62 for cobalt, 0.01 -0.76 for nickel, 0.00002 – 0.02 for lead and 0.09 – 0.95 for chromium. Plant absorption of heavy metals from soil was in the order Cr>Ni>Fe>Co>Pb. Integrated pollution index of soil showed low to extreme high level of pollution. Statistical significant differences were observed between means of heavy metals in study area and control site. Strong positive correlations were observed between pairs of metal in vegetation and pairs of metal in soil. Inter-element correlations were however observed to be weak between the two media. Levels of metals in control sample were not as high as levels obtained at the steel rolling mill.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, Integrated Pollution Index, Plant Concentration Factor, Soil, Vegetation