The Essentials of Conservation Agriculture For soil quality, crop and water productivity in Ethiopian Agriculture: A Review (Published)
In fact food security can be increased through improved land use and land management practices. In Ethiopia much of the increase in crop production in the past decade has been due to increases in area of cultivated. To what extent expansion can continue remains a question, therefore obtaining higher yield rates is the challenge of Ethiopia’s agricultural system. Conservation agriculture (mulching); which here refers to minimizing soil disturbance through no-till practice, application of organic mulch cover, and cropping in time; has the potential to improve soil quality, water, and crop productivity. The objectives of this critical review is to collect available information in similar production environments, indicators on the essential of CA contributions to soil quality, crop and water productivity both in dry and rainfall seasons of Ethiopian agriculture. Recently a study on the role of conservation agriculture indicates improve soil quality, crop yield and water productivity. In addition to this CA can be protect soil layer for erosions either wind or runoff, to optimize infiltration rate minimize runoff, to crate the path of soil it contributes micro nutrients move easily. So, reviewer concluded that conservation agriculture is potentially important to improve sustainable Ethiopian agricultural production and productivity. This agricultural practice (CA) should be able to adopt for irrigated and rain fed farms of Ethiopia.
Chemical soil degradation after erosion is the second most abundant form of soil degradation and as such poses a threat to our finite soil resource, as it tends to render it less usable. It is therefore necessary to understand the means by which soils are degraded chemically. This review paper seeks to highlight some of the causes of soil chemical degradation. One way by which soils degrade chemically is through soil contamination; either by diffuse contamination or from localised sources. Drivers such as salinization, acidification of soils, chemical fertilizer application and use of pesticides all tend to aid the process of soil chemical degradation. The review paper sheds light on these drivers of degradation and also discusses some assessment methods developed to determine soil chemical degradation. In assessing chemical degradation, a combination of assessment tools and soil quality indicator parameters or single assessment tools may be employed. Chemically degraded soils may be irreversible in most cases and as such its prevention will aid in agricultural sustainability. The cultivated lands are continuously degrading and the extent is increasing because of different natural environmental and anthropogenic activities. Soil degradation due to salinization, erosion, water logging etc. Saline soils can be cultivated growing different halophyte plants and using modern irrigation practices. Different amendments can provide calcium directly to the soil or indirectly dissolving native calcium from calcium carbonate already resent in the soil. Different studies demonstrate that under adverse conditions where chemical treatments are uneconomical tree plantations provide positive net returns to investment and signiﬁcant net beneﬁt and social outcomes from these lands.
Irrigation Water Quality Assessment of Industrial Effluents Used for Irrigating Crops in Semi-arid Ecological Zone of Nigeria (Published)
Provision of quality treated wastewater effluents in form of irrigation water will potentially be an option to augment the water needs in agricultural irrigation. However, if the effluents did not meet the irrigation quality standards, their application will be detrimental to the receiving soils, consequently leading to soil and crop quality deterioration. The aim of this study is to assess if Sharada industrial effluents are fit for irrigation application. The irrigation water quality assessment was carried out in three phases (Phases I, II and III) of the industrial locations. Findings indicated that the concentration of the major key irrigation water quality parameters; Electrical conductivity (EC), pH, Exchangeable sodium (Na), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg) and Total dissolved solids (TDS) were of good quality and suitable for irrigation regardless of phases. However, the concentration of bicarbonate (HCO3), Chlorides (Cl), Potassium (K) and Nitrate (NO3-N) values detected in the samples were 488, 305, 305meq/l, 177.50, 159.75, 124.25meq/l, 18.99, 17.72, 13.50mg/l, and 119.09, 59.54, 31.53mg/l respectively. These values were high and of poor quality, thus, unfit for irrigation. Moreover, NO3-N and HCO3 in all irrigation effluents recorded high significant difference (P<0.05) in phase I compared to other phases while, Cl and K were highly significant (P<0.05) in phases I and II in comparison to phase III. Overall, the result when tested for irrigation quality compliance using International Standards revealed that compliance was achieved with reference to pH, EC, Na, Ca, Mg and TDS, while noncompliance was recorded for other irrigation water quality indices indicating that the effluents will be suitable for irrigation under careful, adequate and very effective proper management including improved irrigation system and schedule, soil with good permeability, infiltration and internal drainage, and use of good salt tolerant crops. The importance of this research lies in the fact that the effluents could not be a reliable and effective potential source of irrigation water rich in nutrients capable of increasing soil fertility and crop quality as is the practice of the farmers in the area.
Impact of Industrial Effluents on Soil Quality of Sudan Savanna Alfisols in Semi-arid Tropical Zone of Nigeria (Published)
With increase in industrialization, threat of industrial pollution has been troubling the human world for many years causing environmental pollution including agricultural soils, which are adversely affected when untreated or partially treated industrial effluents are applied on them as irrigation amendments. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of industrial effluents on the quality of soils irrigated with the effluents in Sharada industrial area by measuring different physico-chemical quality parameters. The soil samples were collected from three different phases of the industrial area and analyzed using standard laboratory procedures. Findings indicated that application of industrial effluents on soil caused changes in the physico-chemical profile of the soil with parameters like pH, organic carbon (OC) , nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), exchangeable sodium (Na) and potassium (K) recording mean values ranging from 6.6-7.2, 1.0-2.2%, 0.1-0.2%, 9.0- 14.0mg/Kg, 0.1-0.5Cmol/Kg and 0.6-0.7Cmol/Kg respectively. These values were different from the normal range of fertile and qualitative soil according to standards, and no significant differences were recorded among the sampling sites (P>0.05). Furthermore, the study revealed that the soil texture was sandy loam and loamy sand, while the cation exchange capacity (CEC), electrical conductivity (EC) exchangeable calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) recorded mean values in the range of 4.6-6.8Cmol/Kg, 0.3-1.0dS/m, 1.6-3.7Cmol/Kg and 1.0-2.0Cmol/Kg in that order with significant variation among the sampling sites (P<0.05) indicating the moderate impact of industrial effluents on the soil quality. Overall, the research findings indicated that Sharada industrial effluents have impacted relatively on the soil quality of the surrounding soils in the area and their application should be discontinued for irrigation unless with careful monitoring and guarded improvement in the quality of the industrial wastewater as well as application of inorganic and organic amendments that will improve the fertility and quality of the soils of the study area.
River Water Quality Assessment and Suitability for Irrigation in Northern Sudan Savanna, Ecological Zone of Nigeria (Published)
Good river water quality management and reusing the water appropriately in irrigation agriculture can decrease complete soil and crops toxicity, and serve as a potential feasible options to potable water as well as improvement of natural water resources shortages. This study was carried out between May and July, 2019 to investigate the discharge and irrigation reuse quality of Wudil River effluents in Kano State, Nigeria. The research was conducted in three locations of the river; locations A, B and C respectively. Water quality parameters; pH, COD, BOD5, nutrients (NO3-N, NH4-N and PO4-P), EC and SS were determined in different water samples obtained from the different locations. Data obtained were subjected to statistical analyses of variance (ANOVA). No significant variations (P>0.05) existed in all the chemical variables among the sampled locations. Comparison of the investigated parameters at the various locations of the river with the standard limit of discharge and irrigation reuse revealed that all the locations achieved compliance except for NH4-N and PO4-P variables that polluted the river using Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), World Health Organization (WHO), United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and other related international standards. Hence, the need for a drastic move towards both discharge and irrigation water quality improvement of the river as well as environmental conservation through sustainable development and cleaner technology approach within the research area is highlighted.
Effects of Flooding On Soil Quality in Abakaliki Agro-Ecological Zone of South-Eastern State, Nigeria (Published)
The study focused on the Effects of Flooding on Soil Quality in Abakaliki Agro-ecological Zone of South-Eastern State, Nigeria, for proper soil and flood management to avert soil degradation. Soil samples were collected from three different floodplains and from arable land at the middle of the stream as control at the depth of 0-30cm, and were used for the determination of the selected soil quality. The treatments were replicated five times and data collected were analyzed using analysis of variance for complete randomized (CRD). All the soil properties assessed were significantly different (p<0.05) among the study locations. The results further showed that apart from sand, BD, gravimetric moisture that were higher in control, silt, clay and porosity were recorded highest mean values than control. Mean pH in floodplains recorded mean value of 5.9 being acidic than control with the mean of pH5.38. Also apart from Avail.P(38.50ppm),OC(1.89cmol/kg), Nitrogen (0.15cmol/kg), ECEC(18.16%) and BS(89.65%) being higher in control than floodplains, the mean of OM (2.5cmol/kg), Ca (10.5cmol/kg), Mg(4.7cmol/kg),K(0.14cmol/kg), Na(1.06cmol/kg) and EA(2.07) were higher in floodplains than control, which could support farming during flood cessation for increased food productions. Based on the results, it is recommended that flood best management practice should be encouraged in order to retain soil nutrients, reduce soil and water pollutions for ecosystem sustainability.
Constraints to Use of Soil Quality Maintaining Strategies in a Climate Change Stricken Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria (Published)
The study assessed constraints to use of soil quality maintaining strategies among crop farmers in Ibesikpo Asutan Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 120 respondents for the study. Data were collected using interview schedule and analysed using descriptive and inferential statistical tools. Results show that 65.00% of the respondents were females. Majority (60.00%) were married, with 54.16% having household sizes of not less than 6 persons. Most serious constraints were inadequate finance and capital intensiveness of some strategies. Significant relationships existed between age (r2 = 0.152, p < 0.05), sex (c2 = 5.21, p < 0.05), household size (r2 < -0.212, p < 0.05) and constraints to use of soil quality maintaining strategies. There was significant difference in the extent of constraints to use of the strategies between male and female respondents (t = -1.12, p < 0.05). It is recommended that individuals should save funds for soil quality maintenance. Moreover, programmes aimed at reducing constraints to use of the strategies should be patterned according to severity of the constraints between male and female farmers.