Effect of Maize/Bambara Groundnut Inter-Crop on Soil Properties, Growth and Yield Parameter of the Intercrop Species (Published)
The rationale behind the intercropping system is that it is an efficient utilization of land, and other natural resources and economic production system as it increased yield per unit area. Against this back drop, a field trial was carried out at the experimental farm of the Faculty of Agriculture, Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University, Anambra State to evaluate the effect of maize/Bambara groundnut intercropping on soil properties, growth and yield parameters of the intercrop species. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three treatments consisting of sole maize (SM), sole bambara groundnut (SB), intercrop maize/bambara groundnut (IMB). The treatments were replicated four (4) times and data collected were subjected to an analysis of variance test and mean were separated using least significant difference. The result obtained from the study showed that among the soil parameters tested, avail. P, TN and exchangeable K showed statistically significant difference among the treatments. The value obtained for TN, OC, Mg, EA and ECEC showed 12.50%, 3.2%, 33.33%, 20% and 0.60% increase in IMB relative to SB. The data obtained from the agronomic parameters tested showed that intercropping system greatly influenced the plant height, grain yield, relative and equivalent yield of maize in the intercrop and not effective in the intercrop bambara groundnut. The result obtained also showed an intercrop advantage with land equivalent ratio (LER) of 1.54. With these findings, the farmers in the locality are advised to include bambara groundnut or any other legumes in their crop production systems for efficient and adequate utilization of natural resources and land management
Inherent Defects Associated With Original Construction Methods and Materials Used For Earth Buildings in Nigeria: Case of Gbongan Rural Communities in Osun State (Published)
The durability and longevity of an earth wall is dependent as much upon the raw materials originally employed and methods of which the traditional building was constructed. This research addresses the analysis of the pathologies present in a sample of 120 cases of traditional earth building at Gbongan rural area in Osun State. The defects identified are related with construction methods in which they are detected. The soil particle distribution of earthen material was analysed, soil properties which make soil a suitable construction material are discussed. The paper then concludes on some earth property tests such as composition, consistency, dry shrinkage, coefficient of expansion that enhance durability of earthen structure.
Evaluation of Different Rates of Poultry Manure on Soil Properties and Grain Yield of Maize (Zea Mays L.) in A Typic Haplustult in Abakaliki, Southeastern Nigeria (Published)
This study was carried out to evaluate different rates of poultry manure on soil properties and grain yield of maize in a typic haplustult at Teaching and Research Farm of Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources Management, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki. The field was laid out in randomized complete block design with five treatments of poultry manure at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40t ha-1 and replicated four times. Maize variety (Oba Super II) was used as a test crop. The soil properties and maize yield data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results showed that different rates of poultry manure had significantly (P<0.05) higher total porosity and aggregate stability than control. The plot amended with 40t ha-1 of poultry manure had 16% lower bulk density and 14, 20 and 23% higher aggregate stability, total porosity and gravimetric moisture content compared to control. Different rates of poultry manure had significantly (P<0.05) higher organic matter (OM), available P, N and pH when compared to control. Organic matter, available P, N and pH were higher by 32, 21, 42 and 41% in plot amended with 40t ha-1 poultry manure compared to control. Furthermore, the plot receiving 40t ha-1 of poultry droppings had significantly (P<0.05) higher OM, available N, P, N and pH relative to plots amended with lower rates. Generally, organic matter, available P, N, pH and exchangeable bases of Calcium, magnesium, potassium and Sodium increased in the order of 40>30>20>10>0t ha-1 in the different rates of poultry manure. Grain yield of maize was 19, 17, 11 and 7% higher in plot amended with 40t ha-1 and plots amended with 10, 20 and 30t ha-1 of poultry manure when compared to control. Rates of poultry manure are necessary for improved soil properties but for profitable grain yield of maize, higher rates are recommended.
A Case Study of the Effects of Oil Pollution on Soil Properties and Growth of Tree Crops in Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)
The effect of oil pollution on soil properties and growth of tree crop seedling was investigated for 20 weeks in a greenhouse experiment. Response of tree crop seedlings of cocoa, cashew, pawpaw and mango to pollution levels of 0, 100, 200, 400, 800 and 1000ml/20kg of soil was assessed at 6, 12 and 20 weeks after planting. Results obtained showed significant variation in physico-chemical properties of the soils. Organic carbon increased from 1.52 to 3.66%, nitrogen (0.12 – 0.32) total hydrocarbon (23.86 – 4684.0) in polluted soils. Available P(93.40 – 41.00), exchangeable Ca2+ (0.42-0.26), K+ and Na+ (0.19-0.05) and (0.14 – 0.04), ECEC and Cd also decreases with increase Cu, Mn and Pb with treatment concentration. Seedling germination and plant heights were significantly influenced at high pollution levels. However, these elements were still within the permissible range for agricultural soils. Farmers are advised not to cultivate oil polluted soils until remediation processes are carried out on the land. Liming, fertilization, enhanced ploughing and harrowing were recommended.