Biofertilizer Impacts on Soybean [Glycine max (L.)] Cultivation, Humid Tropics : Biological Nitrogen Fixation, Yield, Soil Health and Smart Agriculture Framework (Published)
Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) soybean cultivar TGx 1440 -1E cultivation for grain yields and soil microbiome with different soil amendments in humid tropics in the late cropping season of 2010, Abeokuta, Nigeria, at Latitude 70 121 N and Longitude 30 251 E in randomized complete block design (RCBD) replicated three times. Treatments application includes: agro-waste recycled to biofertilizer in anaerobic biodigester with two biofertilizer formulations (GF1 and GF2), sunshine fertilizer (SF) and chemical fertilizer (NPK 20:10:10). Soybean vegetative growth parameters, nodulation, amount of nitrogen fixed, yield and yield components were determined at 8 weeks after planting (WAP). GF2 had significantly (P < 0.05) higher number of leaves. GF1 had significantly (P < 0.05) higher number of pods and seed weight/plant with lower biological nitrogen fixation, compared to other treatments. Soybean cultivars breeders should integrate biofertilizer into seed development programme, that bypass the naturalized soil rhizobia and nodulate only with highly effective inoculant strains under environmental stress, improved soil resilience for climate mitigation with rhizosphere-microbial interactions to manage soybean cyst nematode (SCN). Smart agriculture framework developed impacts on trans-disciplinary approach, soyabean cultivation nitrogen use efﬁciency (NUE), remote access to agriculture data in real-time, crop development, supply chain management, proftability and biofertilizer varietal characteristics.
Chemical soil degradation after erosion is the second most abundant form of soil degradation and as such poses a threat to our finite soil resource, as it tends to render it less usable. It is therefore necessary to understand the means by which soils are degraded chemically. This review paper seeks to highlight some of the causes of soil chemical degradation. One way by which soils degrade chemically is through soil contamination; either by diffuse contamination or from localised sources. Drivers such as salinization, acidification of soils, chemical fertilizer application and use of pesticides all tend to aid the process of soil chemical degradation. The review paper sheds light on these drivers of degradation and also discusses some assessment methods developed to determine soil chemical degradation. In assessing chemical degradation, a combination of assessment tools and soil quality indicator parameters or single assessment tools may be employed. Chemically degraded soils may be irreversible in most cases and as such its prevention will aid in agricultural sustainability. The cultivated lands are continuously degrading and the extent is increasing because of different natural environmental and anthropogenic activities. Soil degradation due to salinization, erosion, water logging etc. Saline soils can be cultivated growing different halophyte plants and using modern irrigation practices. Different amendments can provide calcium directly to the soil or indirectly dissolving native calcium from calcium carbonate already resent in the soil. Different studies demonstrate that under adverse conditions where chemical treatments are uneconomical tree plantations provide positive net returns to investment and signiﬁcant net beneﬁt and social outcomes from these lands.