Building construction is complex, involving a wide range of building personnel, products, services and systems (be it mechanical, electrical or integrated service systems). The design process is highly organized, draws upon research establishments that studied designs, material properties, performance, code officials who adopt and enforce safety standards, and design professionals who determine user needs. All these in today’s world, involved Division of Labor and Specialization baptized, Outsourcing. The practice of architecture and building construction have for decades, adopted the services of the experts in putting together, buildings, structures, towns and communities without fundamentally baptizing the services with a name. The primary aim of this paper is to establish that Outsourcing has been in existence in architecture and building industry since the evolution of housing. To accomplish that, the authors adopted content base analysis, qualitative research method with data from secondary and primary sources. The building team includes, but not limited to the services of the architects, urban and physical planers, structural engineers, electrical engineers, mechanical engineers, builders, bricklayers, carpenters, etc. Be it the architect or the bricklayer, the components of the building have always been outsourced to different specialty areas or individuals with the capacity and special skills to put them together in what the economists called, “Division of Labor” and Social Sciences called, “Outsourcing.”
This paper presents the role of cooperatives on the socio-economic development of Ethiopia. It is based on a national survey where 173 cooperatives and 831 cooperatives members were taken as a sample and Focused Group Discussions (FGDs) at eight different regions of the country were considered. The study was based on semi-structured questionnaire. It included a period of ten years (2001-2011). Results of the survey reveal that cooperatives have contributed a lot in the country’s economic development besides supporting their members by providing different products, services, as well as variety of benefits such as securing their food, increasing their income, improving life style and social participation, and inputs for their agriculture activities. Moreover, on the average cooperatives support nearly 15.00 to 29.68 descent jobs and spent 28,032.29 up to 122,297.7 birr as wage and salary per cooperative per year. The average contribution of cooperatives to the Ethiopian GDP for the last ten years is found to be relatively less which ranges 1.21% to 12.27%. The overall findings showed that, cooperatives have struggled to impact the socio-economic development of the country and support their members to improve their livelihood with the unpaved economy and policy of the country.
The study hinged on the investigation of ethnicity and the East African political, social, and economic unity. The study employed a descriptive cross- sectional research design, with qualitative and quantitative approaches. The study used 385 respondents, selected using random and purposive sampling techniques in the study selected areas in Masaka, Katuna, Nimule, Kampala, Malaba and Mutukula. The study discovered that, ethnicity has negatively influenced the formation of the East African political, social and economic unity of Ugandans. The study concluded, that the different and contrasting interpretation of cultures, norms, customs and traditions of the Ugandan people cannot allow the idea of the East African federation to be successful as it is projected in the political, social, and economic spheres on Ugandans. The study recommended for the establishment of a cultural model federation that is widely open politically, socially and economically to all groups of people in the region.
The Socio-Economic Condition of the Physical Labour of Lower Class Older People in Rural Areas of Bangladesh (Published)
Older people are familiar as ‘eldest citizens’ of the society, and they are respected by the family, society, and also by the nation. But due to several kinds of socio-economic causes, the traditional values and customs are not keeping entirely. Now old is an emerging issue which is a flourishing concern in the world, particularly in developing countries. Most of the older people of Bangladesh aren’t in a proper socio-economic condition due to different kind of problems, e.g., Poverty, Wage discrimination, want of essential goods and situation. This study conducted on the socio-economic condition of physical labour of lower class older people in Swaruppur, a Union of Maheshpur Upazila under Jhenaidah district of Bangladesh. The objective of this study is to explore the socio-economic condition among the older people of Maheshpur Upazila. This study based on both primary and secondary data sources. The primary data for this study collected through a questionnaire survey. In this study, research work has been conducted based on purposive sampling by selecting a sample of 60 people. And also the secondary data have been collected from various published and unpublished sources including books, journals, newspaper, magazines, annual report and websites of institutions. Analyzing the data obtained from the respondents, it is found that the socio-economic condition of the physical labour of lower class older people is very low, especially the financial problems. So, they can’t conduct their family properly because of low to income.
Democracy has been an acceptable platform of interaction in the committee of nations. It is also the most widely acceptable system of governance. Essentially, the birth of democracy in Nigeria has endured for over a decade, but the democratization process in Nigeria suffers from several security issues, given that the citizens have been exposed to high levels of insurgency, poverty and unemployment. Social and economic insecurity has being a major setback to democratic governance in Nigeria and this has impaired the participation of the citizens in democratic governance, thereby leaving governance for a privilege few. This paper examines the linkage between social and economic insecurity and the participation of Nigeria citizens in democratic governance. The researchers adopted a public opinion questionnaire based on experts’ judgment; and using the Cronbach alpha formulae; internal consistency reliability coefficient of 0.87 was obtained. The data collected was analyzed using the one sample t-test, with hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. Findings indicate that social and economic insecurity negatively impact on democratic participation; given that the fear of violent attack, poverty, absence of the dividend and unequal distribution wealth reduce democratic participation. Recommendations are made that politicians should be obliged by law to fulfill the promises made during campaigns or before elected into offices. Government should create an enabling environment to address issues of poverty, unemployment, corruption among governing class and insurgency, so that security for life and property will be assured.
This study examined the prevalence of domestic violence in the socio-economic and political context in Ghana. The study conveniently sampled 200 women within Kumasi metropolis as participants. Data for the study came from both primary and secondary sources. Structured questionnaires were face-to-face administered to the respondents. The data were analyzed with the aid of Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) for windows. The study revealed that the prevalence of Cultural factors had been agreed by respondents as scourge of domestic violence. Acceptability of violence as means to resolve conflict (M=4.7), bride price and dowry (M=4.2), Cultural definitions of appropriate sex roles (M=4.25), Belief in the inherent superiority of males (M=4.3). Prevalence of economic factors were agreed by respondents as follows: Women’s economic dependence on men (M=5.0) limited access to employment in formal and informal sectors (4.26) discriminatory laws regarding inheritance, property rights, use of communal lands (4.2). Prevalence of Political factors were agreed by respondents as follows: Under-representation of women in power, politics, media and in the legal and medical profession (M=4.17), Risk of challenge to status-quo/religious laws (M=4.35). Legal factors included: laws regarding divorce, child custody, maintenance and inheritance (M=4.31) insensitive treatment of women and girls by police and judiciary (M=4.91). More than halve of the respondents indicated that they have even been assaulted by men. The study revealed a significant association between ever been assaulted and employment status (X2=76.9, p-value<0.05, df =6). Again there is a significant relationship between ever been assaulted and education attainment (X2=35.25, p-value<0.05, df =8). There are relationship between females ever been assaulted and age X2=21.13, p-value<0.05, df =8). Policy intervention and reinforcement of the existing legislation is imperative in the civility of these findings.
Socio-Economic Determinants of Youth Empowerment By Fadama Iii Project In Delta State, Nigeria: Implications For Agricultural Transformation (Published)
This study was conducted in Delta State. It assessed the contributions of Fadama III empowerment activities toward youth development. The specific objectives were to: describe the socio-economic characteristics of the participants, ascertain the participation level of youths in the project, examine the determinants of youth empowerment by Fadama III, and identify the issues militating against youth empowerment in Fadama III. The multistage sampling procedure was used to gather data from 105 youths. Descriptive statistics and multiple regression were used to analyze collected data. The socio-economic characteristics result showed that youths from 28 – 32 years were highest (41.9%) in the project. Most of the youths (78.1%) involved in Fadama III were males, high proportion (55.2%) of the youths were married, 61.9% possessed secondary education and 88.6% cultivated less than an hectare. The level of youths participation was moderate (x ̅ = 2.53). The major constraints militating against the youth participation in Fadama III were poor capital base (x ̅ = 3.34), inefficient training session (x ̅ = 3.30), poor project finance (x ̅ = 3.29) and poor communication ideas in farming technology (x ̅ = 3.26). The regression result (R2 = 0.840) showed that the determinants of youth empowerment by Fadama III were sex which was significant at 1% level while marital status and educational level were inversely proportional to youth empowerment at 1% and 5% level of probability respectively. The study concluded that marriage and high educational status reduce the tendency of active involvement in Fadama III agricultural activities. It was recommended that training should be given to the married and educated youths.
Communities – Company Relation in Limestone Mining Region of Southwest Nigeria: The Ewekoro Socio-Economic View (Published)
A study to assess the socio-economic impacts of limestone quarrying and processing operations at Ewekoro, South-Western Nigeria has been carried out. Data were collected through the use of well structured pre-tested questionnaires and oral interview in order to assess the socio economic impact of quarrying and processing of limestone on the inhabitants of the community and the workers. The finding shows that limestone exploitation has both positive and negative effects on the host community and the workers. It also shows that the benefits derived by the host community like employment, good roads, schools and hospitals are insignificant when compared with the negative effects of the exploitation on the community which includes reduction in crop production, negligence of education by students, overcrowding and high competition for little-available social amenities. Besides, the socio-economic inputs of the company are not well felt by the communities due to politicizing of the executions. Appropriate recommendations were made to ameliorate these negative socio-economic effects.
This paper examines the issue of Boko Haram insurgence and its implications on socio-political economic in Nigeria. We used survey questionnaire based on economic, social and political activities in the country, data were collected from stakeholders with evidence from newspapers. The findings include the following; the activities of the insurgency have crippled the economic activities which are as results of unemployment, poverty and illiteracy in the Northern-part of Nigeria. This suggests that this may constitutes serious threat to lives and property of Nigerians thereby hindering business activities and discouraging foreign investors. We find that the role of religious leaders encourage the activities of the insurgency, the political elite in the Northern-part of Nigeria also contribute to the insurgency as a result of bad governance. We recommend that Government must be proactive in dealing with security issues, use modern methods of intelligence gathering, adequate training, and motivation among security personnel and encourage the youth in going to school.
AGRICULTURAL COMMERCIALISATION, CONTRACT FARMING AND TOBACCO: A STUDY OF THE IMPACT OF TOBACCO CULTIVATION ON EMPLOYMENT TRENDS IN RURAL SIRISIA, BUNGOMA WEST DISTRICT, KENYA, 1975-2005 (Published)
Commercial production of tobacco in Kenya has been going on for about a century and since its introduction, its production and use have been issues of great controversy.Tobacco production in Kenya has created a class of growers that have long been ignored by historians. A growing number of scholarly works available on the theme have basically been of scientific and agronomical nature. In a wider context, a lot of literature on social relations on the recent agrarian intensification in Africa does exist, though lack of systematic studies on the relationship between tobacco production and socio-economic impact as well as employment on tobacco farms still remains a yawning gap in the historiography of Kenya. This paper is a focus on a historical examination of tobacco growing peasantry and its impact on employment trends in Sirisia, Bungoma West District of Kenya following concerted efforts by the British American Tobacco Kenya Limited (BAT) to commercialise agricultural production. The study used observation method and interviews in data collection. Archival and documentary sources were also used for secondary data. This study serves a purpose of informing key stakeholders in the government and non-government sectors about the relevant policies to improve rural livelihood in Sirisia and other tobacco producing areas. The study demonstrates the view that the peasant sector occupies a central role in African economic development.
SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT OF TOURISM DEVELOPMENT IN THE FOREST COMMUNITY OF IKPE ORO, URUE OFFONG ORUKO LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF AKWA IBOM STATE (Published)
This study on socio-economic impact of tourism development in the forest community of Ikpe Oro community, Urue Offong Oruko Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom state is aimed at establishing the socio-economic impact of tourism development in the forest community in the study area. The correlational research design was adopted. To achieve the purpose of this study, two null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The simple random sampling technique was adopted in selecting three communities while the multi-stage stratified random sampling technique and accidental sampling technique was used to select the one hundred and fifty (150) community members used for the study. A fifteen (15) items four points likert scale questionnaire was the instrument used for data collection. To test the hypotheses, Pearson product moment correlation statistical analysis technique was used for data analysis. The results obtained from analysis of data revealed that, there is a significant relationship between employment opportunities and improvement in infrastructural facilities and tourism development in the forest community of Ikpe oro, Urue Offong Oruko Local Government Area of Akwa ibom State