Comparative Analysis of Differences in Women Entrepreneurship in Rural and Urban Communities in Cross River State (Published)
This study was conducted to assess disparities in women entrepreneurship in urban and rural communities in Cross River state. Specifically the study was aimed at identifying motivation for entrepreneurship by urban and rural women, identifying entrepreneurship activities engaged by urban and rural women entrepreneurs and challenges faced by urban and women entrepreneurs in the state. The study adopted survey design while cluster sampling technique was used to select samples. Questionnaires were used for data collection while percentages were used for data analysis. The study reveals that most women entrepreneurs from age category 41-45 while in rural areas, most of them were from ages of 36-40. In both areas, majority of the women were married. Majority of urban women entrepreneurs had tertiary education while in rural communities; most of the women had secondary education. Further, most of the women in urban areas were from monogamous relationships while relationships of most of rural women entrepreneurs were from polygamous. The study also found that entrepreneurship activities engaged by urban women entrepreneurs included mostly retail stores, followed by jewelry or boutiques, event management outfits, beautician shops and tailoring shops and small eateries. For the rural women, the most common business activities were agricultural business, followed by food restaurants, palm wine/beer joints and retail shops. Urban women entrepreneurs sourced their capital from mostly family, followed by personal savings, financial institutions and friends. Rural counterparts sourced capital mainly from informal financial institutions, followed by sale of crops and friends. The most common motivations for entrepreneurship for urban women entrepreneurship included the need to generate extra income while social status was the least motivation. For rural women, support their family members was the most common reason. Challenges faced by urban women entrepreneurs mostly included conflicts between business and family functions and lack of access to credit, inexperience and gender discrimination. For rural women, lack of funds, gender discrimination, government neglect in entrepreneurship programmes, low education and lack of business skills were the challenges. The study therefore recommended for opportunities for access to capital urban and rural women, involvement of rural women in entrepreneurship programmes and gender equality.
Impact of Trade Union on Productivity of Teachers in Public and Private Primary Schools in Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)
The study investigated the impact of trade union on productivity among teachers in public and private primary schools in Cross River state. Specifically, the study compares productivity of teachers in private and public primary schools in the study area. Survey design was deployed in the study while cluster random sampling was used to select 180 pupils and purposive sampling technique to select six (6) key informants. Survey interviews and key informant interviews were used for data collection. The analysis of data involved use of percentages, mean and chi-square and transcription of views of the key informants. The study revealed that teachers in private primary schools are more productive than their colleagues in public schools based on indices of productivity such as attendance to school, attendance to classes, average number of lessons held per day and involvement in extra lessons. The study also found a significant difference in school attendance between the public and private primary schools in the study area as the computed chi-square value of 2.222 was greater than the critical value of 1.543 on 1 degree of freedom and confidence level of 0.05. Also there was a significant difference in regular class by teachers in the public and private primary schools as computed chi-square value of 46.723 was greater than the critical value of 44.416 on 1 degree of freedom and confidence level of 0.05. The study therefore recommends regular audit of teachers, strict monitoring on the job, training and retraining and inclusion of teachers’ productivity as one of the core aims of trade Unions.
THE IMPACT OF HUMAN CAPITAL DEVELOPMENT AND ECONOMIC EMPOWERMENT ON THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT OF AKWA IBOM STATE, NIGERIA (Published)
Human capital development is an indispensable component of the development process. It is a development strategy aimed at fulfilling the potentials of people by enlarging their capabilities which necessarily implies the empowerment of the people, and enabling them to participate actively in their own development. It also serve a means through which the skills, knowledge, productivity and inventiveness of people are enhanced. This study therefore, examined the impact of human capital development and economic empowerment in the socio-economic development in Akwa Ibom State. The study adopted a historical and descriptive approach in data collection. The study therefore revealed that from 1999 to 2012, the government being the foremost driver of the economy has made a positive impact on the training and retraining of workers in the public sector. This has made the public sector more vibrant, efficient and result-oriented. The study also revealed that aside from training, the government also embarked on elaborate empowerment programme which has helped so many to become self-employed as well as employer of labour. The study further revealed that government failed to give priority need in their training programme to the critical areas in the state namely oil and gas for effective participation of this sector by the Akwa Ibomites. On the strength of this, the study recommended among others that government should embark on extensive training of domestic engineers in the areas of oil and gas in the state. Also government should encourage individuals and private sector to increase investment in human capital and economic empowerment in the state.
New Trends in the Ahwiaa Wood Carving Industry in Ghana: Implications for Art Education and Socio-Economic Growth (Published)
Asantes in Ghana are noted for their expertise in variety of specialized visual arts such as wood carving. Ahwiaa wood carving industry has developed; though production techniques have remained stereotype. Tools have greatly remained simple, materials the same, variations in form have not changed much and conventional treatment has not promoted creativity and originality, yet some new trends, new approaches are noticeable today. At present, globalization, trade, education, religion, changes in societal values and cultural practices, political and economic challenges, technology, trade (commerce), knowledge explosion have generated new approaches in the Ahwiaa wood carving industry. Besides, no organized documentation has been done on the Ahwiaa wood carving industry, so that the researchers almost always have to rely on oral tradition as a source of information from wood carvers. The researchers employed the qualitative descriptive method to carry out the study. The data were collected using interviews and observation. The researchers found out that the tools used are simple tools made by the local blacksmith which are sharpened and maintained by oiling and storing after use. The main material is wood, formerly acquired by felling special trees from the forest. Today, the log for carving is bought from Timber contractors. The carving of an item follows specific processes, according to tradition. Women were prevented from carving in the past; today women are free to carve if they so wish. The researchers recommend that School of Business, departments of Sculpture and Integrated Rural Art and Industry at KNUST should organize workshops for carvers at Ahwiaa and introduce them to modern wood carving technologies, entrepreneurial skills and business strategies to equip them to promote tourism and socio-economic development of Ghana as well as their personal development
The Impact of Rural Roads and Bridges on the Socio-economic Development of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria: An Evaluation (Published)
Rural roads and bridges form the basis for transformation and communication. They constitute the most critical infrastructure in the rural, and by extension national development drive. Contributions of rural roads and brides to rural development include: accelerated delivery of farm inputs and evacuation of product and reduction in the cost of transportation. On the other hand lack of rural access roads has killed the dreams and resilience of those who may have chosen to live in the villages with their villages cut away from the city and potentials in the villages wasting away, these set of people have chosen to join the rest for urban life. Since majority of economic activities in our society depend in one way or the other on road infrastructure, Akwa Ibom State Government from 1999 made an effort to provide roads and bridges. This work therefore assessed the impact of government effort in the provision of rural road and bridges on the socio-economic transformation of the State. The study adopted a historical as well as descriptive approach in data collection. The study therefore revealed that the government efforts has increased socio-economic activities in the state as people and goods now move freely from rural areas to the urban centres. The study further revealed that provision of rural roads and bridges has equally helped to reduce the cost of transportation in the state. Above all, it has reduced rural urban drift in the state. Based on this, the study recommended that the government should sustain the present tempo by increasing fund allocation in the annual budget for rural roads and bridges.