Tag Archives: Society

Abstractions from Aristotle’s Polis and Plato’s Republic for Education, Self-Actualization and Sustainability in Nigeria (Published)

The paper adumbrated on prevalent circumstances surrounding the delivery of the type of education that may not correspond to sustainability in Nigeria. This is against the backdrop of a plethora of negative imperatives in the motive, mode and usages for educational certificates instead of knowledge and merit. Abstracting from the philosophical postulations embedded in Aristotle’s Polis and Plato’s Republic as its theoretical foundation, the paper argued that education for self-actualization, if not skewed to align with the goal needs of the larger society cannot confer sustainability in the long run. Mainly descriptive in approach, the paper inferred that apart from the fact of poor funding and outmoded curriculum contents of Nigerian educational programme, which result in the churning out of graduates adjudged to be largely unemployable, a great number of education seekers still hold unto the misconception that an educational certificate, no matter how acquired and what nature it is, provides, not just jobs, but white collar jobs, whereas this had long been supplanted by pragmatism, smartness, innovation and creativity. The paper therefore recommended, among others, improved funding, the re-appraisal of educational curriculum, improvement in schools’ infrastructure, training of teachers etc.; community involvement in platforms for counselling, support and skill acquisition centres for alternative development; and the acquisition of skill sets in computer/ICT related programmes, arts and crafts, as complements to educational certificates that are expected to train the head and equip the hands at the same time.

Keywords: Education, Self-actualization, Society, Sustainability, Sustainable Development

Yearning for Freedom in a Prison without Bars in Two Novels: Ṣamt al-Farāshāt/ Silence of the Butterflies by Laylā al-ʿUthmān and Lam ʾAʿud ʾAbkī / I Do not Cry Anymore by Zaynab Ḥifnī (Published)

The crisis of freedom that the Gulf woman lives in under a patriarchal male culture that is biased against her and against the Arab woman in general, turns her into a prisoner who lives behind moral bars. Under these circumstances, the Gulf woman’s writing becomes a conflict with the man’s concepts and the patriarchal male mentality of her society. However, by writing, she reveals the issues of her scandalous oppression, and emancipates herself from her shackles. Writing is one of the forms of freedom, through which she regains her voice that has been stolen from her as a woman and a creative artist. This study seeks to reveal the manifestations of oppression that the woman is exposed to in the feminist Gulf literature in two novels: Ṣamt al-Farāshāt by  Laylā al-ʿUthmān, and Lam ʾAʿud ʾAbkī  by Zaynab Ḥifnī as samples. The study will reveal the woman’s figurative ‘prison’ and ‘jailor’: the prison of society with its norms and traditions, and the prison of the Man and his domination as images of her oppression by marriage, and by the siege of social norms, the culture of silence,  her prevention from choosing her job and her creative freedom. In return, the study will observe the features of her revolution and rebellion against all these figurative “prisons” such as her refusal of the traditional marriage, her resistance by writing, her search for love, and breakage of the sex taboo. The woman manifests herself between the character of the ‘prisoner’ and the ‘rebellious’ woman, between her ‘yearning for freedom’ and her ‘revolt’ against the ‘bars’ in order to realize herself and break the taboos.

Keywords: Females, Freedom, Prison, Society, Traditions, bars, males

Feminism & Hegemony from the Perspective of Man and Superman & Arms and the Man of George Bernard Shaw (Published)

This article aims to evaluate both texts Man and Superman & Arms and The Man of George Bernard Shaw critically. This research piece contains venerated tradition of the society towards women as well as captures the vigorous voice against suppression. In this research, the dominating tendency of one group over other will be identified specifically. Here, the supremacy of British Colonialism along with the capitalistic mentality of American will be discussed with significant points. Treatment of refugees at the dominating states during war and famine will also be evaluated in this article pivotally. Both texts are dissected in this research article to probe the voice of feminism and to show the extensive gap between higher, middle and lower class of our society. Comparative discussion will be given in this research piece in order to connect homogeneous issues.

Citation: Fahmeda Yeasmin (2021) Feminism & Hegemony from the Perspective of Man and Superman & Arms and the Man of George Bernard Shaw, European Journal of English Language and Literature Studies, Vol.9, No.7, pp.11-23


Keywords: Class, Dominance, Power, Society, Women, clash

Auto-Fiction between Imagination and Reality: Aesthetics of Writing of the Arab Female Writer in the Exile of Her Society- Nawal al-Sa’dawi’ As a Model (Published)

Auto-fiction in its modern concept is considered an art that is a product of the modern cultural development that has conquered the world since 19 B.C. This ‘culture’ carries all the components of innovation and constant growth in human life, including the means of material and technological product, the scientific and medical prosperity, and appearance of new sciences in the arena of application and experimentation, which had not been known before, with new concepts, which helped a lot in understanding the human soul in all its conditions. Among the advantages of this awareness is the popularity of people’s interests in what is known today in modern literature by the name of the art of auto-fiction. Thus, the writer’s life or any life of any person who likes to write his autobiography are no more surrounded by precautions, prohibitions or taboos. Previously, it was forbidden to approach certain issues or even thinking about them because they were considered taboos.[1]It is possible to consider rebellion against norms, breaking social shackles, overcoming all the difficulties of reality and aspiration for emancipation as the most important motives that characterize the woman’s autobiography in the modern era. These motives characterize the modern woman’s discourse, which is actually achieved in her autobiography at all levels.  

Citation: Hanan Bishara  (2021) Auto-Fiction between Imagination and Reality: Aesthetics of Writing of the Arab Female Writer in The Exile of Her Society- Nawal Al-Sa’dawi’ As A Model, European Journal of English Language and Literature Studies, Vol.9, No.6, pp.37-55



Keywords: Aesthetics, Female, Feminism, Male, Society, auto-fiction

The Sociolinguistics of Congratulatory Messages in Nigerian Newspapers (Published)

Congratulatory messages are a type of greeting in which members of a society express their joy and happiness to one another as a result of an accomplishment, success, or good fortune. Several studies have been conducted on oral greetings from both pragmatic and sociolinguistic perspectives, with little attention paid to written forms. The goal of this paper is to look into the connections between the sociolinguistic behaviours of Nigerian (L2) English speakers in newspaper congratulatory messaging and the specific social norms, values, and beliefs they convey. The paper will investigate the structural patterns as well as the functions of these messages, to determine what kind of sociolinguistic information they attempt to communicate. The framework for the paper is Ethnography of Communication. Data were subjected to sociolinguistic analysis. Findings reveal that English has a distinct cultural element in relation to the society where it is adopted as official or additional language. Social interactional norms in the Nigerian context emphasised status and power instead of solidarity. The sociolinguistic import of these messages conveyed sociocultural orientations to spirituality, adulations, and veneration of the aged, and solicitation. The results discussed in this paper have implications on how people think about the value of studying language as a communicative instrument in relation to the society in which it is used and the sociocultural function it tries to perform. 

Keywords: Ethnography of communication, Greetings, Society, Sociolinguistic behaviours, sociocultural norms

Medicine and Religion in the Nigerian Society: Conflicts and Controversies (Published)

This topic is borne out of the need to check an ugly trend which is now a cankerworm eating deeply into our health indices and progressively leading to the increasing mortality of our citizens even at a rate that may be far more than the activities of the terrorists. Shortly I shall be looking at the crack (conflicts and controversies) that have been created between Religion and Medical Science which unfortunately is widening by the day for no just cause.

Keywords: Controversies, Medicine, Nigeria, Religion., Society, conflicts.

The Lifestyle Society in Using Swimming Pool: A Study in Dendang Tirta Swimming Pool, Stabat District, Langkat Regency (Published)

Dendang Tirta Swimming Pool as an entertainment object that is purely entertainment. Like visitors coming from students the original goal is to fulfill extracurricular activities that are talent and sports development. However on the other hand, students also use the swimming pool as their entertainment facility. Visitors more interpret the Dendang Tirta swimming pool as a recreational vehicle compared to sports facilities. This meaning is certainly motivated by the social stratification of the community in Langkat District. In addition, visitors also interpret the swimming pool as a lifestyle of interaction between individuals, families with community groups

Keywords: Dendang Tirta, Langkat Regency, Lifestyle, Society, Stabat District, Swimming Pool

Women Rights: Myth or Reality, With Special Reference to George Eliot’s Adam Bede and Toni Morrison’s Beloved (Published)

This paper focuses on the rights denied to women in the works of George Eliot’s Adam Bede and Toni Morrison’s Beloved. Both the writers belong to different times and social strata. The significant portion of this paper is related with female rights, marriage and oppression of women in the society. The paper also deals with the modifications and the outlook of women characters as they stand against the rules and regulations persisting during those times. Both the writers have used their works as a device to announce their distresses in relation to the women roles and gender clashes in the social community. As educated and well read women, both George Eliot and Toni Morrison have shaped woman characters in order to confirm that women are also gifted with intelligence and wisdom and are capable of being sensible and sound. Eventually, this paper shows that both the writers courageously confront and defy the culture and civilization and stand up for women in relation to marriage, school, profession and dedicate themselves to writing profession from the viewpoint of women with an endeavour to reveal their place in the society by focusing on their shortcomings, judgment and attitude against the ruthless norms and culture of male dominated society.

Keywords: Female, Marriage, Profession, Society, Women

The Probable Applicability of Critical Pedagogy In Bangladeshi Classroom (Published)

The objective of this study is to understand the range of responses towards critical pedagogy by teachers who do not have much formal training or prior experience with critical pedagogy. The study aims to understand the practicality and feasibility of critical pedagogy to be applied in the classroom. The study was conducted on the fifteen teachers of a private university in Bangladesh. The participants were from four departments namely Law, English, Business Administration and Computer Science and Engineering. The data was collected through close ended questionnaire and analyzed through quantitative research method. The study reveals that critical pedagogy can be applied to Bangladeshi Classrooms.

Keywords: Applicable, Critical Pedagogy, Education, Empower, Society

A Review of Justice by Five Vulnerable Women in the Bible (Published)

There is a global outcry for justice with the increasing gap between the poor and the rich and acts of injustice especially directed to the vulnerable: women and children. Even in light of the changing roles of women, they are still the main victims of unjust actions. This paper therefore addresses this concern by reviewing the actions of five women in the Bible who did just actions and eventually brought justice to their communities. Rahab the Harlot, the widow of Zarephath, little girl in captivity, Dorcas and the Good Samaritan are looked at in this paper. These women, despite their vulnerability, went an extra mile to do just deeds even when it meant giving all they had. This understanding of the Biblical Icons who brought justice is expected to inform the changing role of women in the contemporary society as far as justice is concerned.

Keywords: Bible, Communities & Women, Deeds, Justice, Society

Scheduled Caste Protest In Relation To Various Discriminations Made To Them in the Society (Published)

In this paper we have presented an analysis of news items collected from secondary sources, i.e. the news paper and findings which have come out from this analysis. As we have said earlier that data for this study have also been collected form secondary sources. For collecting data we have selected Hindi News Papers Dainik Jagran and Amar Ujala for identifying events. We have collected the news cutting of various news items which are related to the scheduled caste protests in western U.P District (Meerut) during last Five years from 2005 to 2010. On the basis of these items we have made an effort to analyze the scheduled caste protest in Meerut District. We have found 100 news items based on 11 various issues such as land related cases, reservation policy cases, rape cases, corruption in development schemes, crop cases, and panchayat conflict tourchers against scheduled caste, killing / Murder against scheduled caste conflicts beside these issues. We have also taken area of events as another variable, rural, semi urban and urban.

Keywords: Discriminations, Protest Relation, Scheduled Caste, Society

Treatment of Violence in King Lear and Bond’s Lear (Published)

The purpose of this research paper is to examine Bond’s Lear in relation to which it “stands to Shakespeare’s great original” (Smith 194). Both plays deal with the issues of political and economic power and investigates the relation of aggression and violence present within nature of human beings when it comes to their struggle over supremacy and rule. This paper focuses tendency of ruling individuals to assert aggression and violence and research work tends to explore both plays in the light of Bond’s Preface to his version of Lear

Keywords: Bond's Lear, King Lear, Society, Violence, and political struggle, economic power

Environmental and Social Impact Assessment for a Modular Power Plants Project in Menengai, Nakuru County, Kenya: Impact Identification, Evaluation and Risk Analysis (Published)

This paper is an extract from the Environmental and Social Impact Assessment report for the Menengai modular geothermal power plants projects for Geothermal Development Company Limited. Geothermal Development entails exploration drilling, steam collection, construction of power generation units and power transmission lines. Preliminary phase of land acquisition, vegetation clearing, construction and power generation is likely to cause environmental disturbance. Integrated resource utilization and environmental conservation needs an effective and efficient environmental and social management plan in order to facilitate sustainable implementation of the proposed project. Impact identification and risk analysis for any proposed project, are key for they provide useful information to decision- makers.  This paper aims to provide a valuation’s perspective on how to best design and execute the impact identification and risk analysis to achieve results that align mitigation with identified potential impacts of the proposed project activities. The process involved identifying where the interactions were likely to occur between the proposed project activities and the receiving environments. A modified Leopold Matrix (LM) integrated with Lohani & Thanh methods were used to identify and estimate the magnitudes and importance of the potential impacts. Cumulative impacts were estimated using consequence and probability ranking model adapted from the South African Department of Environmental Affairs’ guideline document on EIA regulations of 1998. The model predicts the significance of impacts by considering magnitude, duration, spatial scale and factoring in probability of the impact to occur. Based on results of analysis, the cumulative impacts ranged from minor to moderate and can be mitigated.

Keywords: Cumulative Impact, Environment, Impact Assessment, Modular Geothermal Power Generation Technology, Risk Analysis, Society

Social Studies Education and the Need for Value-Based Education in Nigeria (Published)

Values throughout the world are a universal concept. Nigeria as a pluralistic society is characterized by many goals and sets of values. The social, political, economic and religious institutions associated with this society are made up of many diverse groups. Each of these groups has its individual rules and values. The rules and values of these institutions very often conflict, yet many people continue to see the society as having a set of values. However, the conflict between the rules and values which characterize the various institutions in a given social framework collectively substantiate and constitute enough evidence as to the pluralistic nature of many modern societies ‘Nigeria’. Value-based education in Nigeria has been identified as the main condition for the growth and sustainable development of any nation of the world. With particular reference to these conflicting values in pluralistic society like ours Social Studies education has a critical role to play to actualize this dream. The paper therefore is beamed at exploring: the changing role of education and implication for values and versa, objectives of value-based education in the modern context, types of values, the role of Social Studies in inculcating value-based education, Social Studies education and spatial dimension of value-based education, Social Studies education and cognitive, and affective dimension of value-based education, Social Studies education and character based-education, Social Studies teacher’s function as a model for value development, the Nigerian core values and some recommendations were made.

Keywords: Education, Nigeria, Social Studies, Society, Value-Based Education

Re-Orientation of Value System in Nigeria: A Critic (Published)

The re-orientation of value system in our society is a search for national culture that would reshape national character and image. The study revealed that when national life is taken over by social sins, the citizens pursue wealth without knowledge, without character, pleasure without conscience, commerce without morality, worship without sacrifice, science without humanity and politics without principles. The study adopted historical research method. The research provided that re-orientation of value system would promote national image, respect for human life and corporate values. The youth would imbibe the culture of hard work and productivity, wealth creation, employment generation, entrepreneurship, intangible wealth and competition. The writer is optimistic that educated and uniformed youths would gain better understanding of the subject matter while leadership, education, religion and home remain the fulcrum of value re-orientation for now and the future.

Keywords: National Culture, Nigeria, Re-orientation, Society, Value System

The Nigerian Media and the Institution of a Cultureless Society (Published)

Culture is one of the central forces that help to situate a person or thing within a given milieu. Indeed, culture can be seen as personality designator because it identifies a person and situates him/her on the basis of certain traits he/she exhibits. On the other hand, it is also evidence of education, taste, finesse, and of civilization. A cultured person or people belong to a category of those who stand out as unique in virtually everything. ‘Cultureless-ness’, on its part is a term employed to denote the trend whereby a person or people lack culture, making it impossible to identify or situate him/her or them by what he/she does or they do. It is a celebration of abnormality and the opposite of culture as stated above. The media, on their part, are not only culture symbolized, they are also purveyors of culture. This paper examines the role the Nigerian media have played or failed to play in creating and foisting a cultureless society on the Nigerian people. This will be done through the literary/artistic research methodology. It will draw its conclusion on the basis of data analyzed and make recommendations where necessary.

Keywords: Culture, Mass Media, Society

Cultural Aspects in Advertising Discourse (Published)

Advertisements are an integral part of people’s life and culture. They react in a way to human concerns and cares by implementing global as well as culture specific aspects in their texts. They serve as a currency in everyday communication and reflect people’s way of thinking and life, as well as the assumptions, attitudes and beliefs typical for the society they originate from. The paper presents Bulgarian and British ads, their specificities and the comments for and against some of the issues they touch upon because apart from selling goods and services they offer symbolic meanings, life styles and signs which can be identified only by people familiar with the respective culture the ads appear in. All this is done through linguistic manifestations and various ways of conceptualizing the world reflected in the analyzed ads.

Keywords: Advertisements, Conceptualization, Culture, Society


A formidable unique effect is expected when language, individual, society and culture are studied together. The result shows that languages reflect rather than create social-cultural regularities in values and orientations than has previously been identified. Language has profound influence on an individual’s self-image. Interpersonal events help to set the stage. The characteristics of languages are regarded more as indicators of social relationship. Anthropology attributes to language teaching such importance as it does to the grammatical or phonological aspect. Added, fieldwork expects familiarity with the tribal language. For example, an expression in a primitive language may be totally unintelligible unless considered in its cultural context and related to circumstances in which it occurs. This makes language a guide to social reality and a symbolic guide to culture. Culture indeed satisfies both the basic and integrative needs of the individual and society. Consequently, language, the individual, society and culture constitute a unique approach, congenial to language teachers.

Keywords: Culture, Individual, Language, Language Teachers, Society, cultural competence


This paper draws attention to the cross-linguistic problems that have made minority languages lose their prominence and allow stronger languages to dominate in international linguistic space and in education. Schools and universities crave stronger languages for medium of instruction in the classroom in developing countries again dictates of science and technology have influenced the use of a stronger language for global use. The paper therefore investigates the states of early use of language (English) in Kenyan schools and its relationship with other vernacular languages in the country. It also identifies reasons why English became so prominent than other languages spoken in Kenya.

Keywords: Bootstrapping, Curriculum, Global Worlds, Language, Society, Syntactic-semantic Interface.


This paper foregrounds the notion of dynamic protagonist in Festus Iyayi’s two novels. Idemudia and Iyere are seen as protagonists of dynamism whose volte-face as the plots unfold is orchestrated by their new experience, knowledge and maturity. Idemudia who starts off as an idealist with rose tinted spectacles fashioned from the mill of inexperience later becomes a life-beaten but introspective realist who has come to appreciate that life’s sacrifices come in different forms. Similarly, Osime Iyere who initially sees humanity in the federal troops and undiluted savagery on the Biafran side during the civil war later comes to see the two sides in the war as nothing but murderers and rapists of defenceless civilians. His contention, therefore, is that the war is actually a huge conspiracy of the blood-sucking bourgeoisie on both sides against the masses in general who can only be saved by a neutral third army with membership from both sides. In conclusion, the paper states that by artistically placing the two protagonists in the two novels where their experiences invest them with the correct education toward combating the oppressive alienating disorder in the society Iyayi’s thesis is clear: the masses must be correctly educated about the nature of the society in order to wage a meaningful war against its crushing lopsidedness.

Keywords: Bourgeoisie, Dynamism, Masses, Plot, Protagonists, Society