Counter-Terrorism Security Interventions in Kenya: Effect of Public Security Screening On Social Relations in Nairobi County (Published)
Public security screening is a counter-terrorism strategy that involves searches and personal checks on people who seek to access buildings and other premises. The aim of the study was to establish the nature of counter-terrorism security intervention strategies and their influence on social relations in Nairobi County Kenya. Based on the study, this paper examines the influence of public security screening strategy on social relations. The study was informed by structural functionalism theory, balance scorecard theory and social identity theory. Mixed methods research design by use of concurrent triangulation technique was adopted. The study used a sample size of 384 respondents. Of these, 361 were heads of households, 15 were members of Nairobi County Security Board and 8 were survivors of terrorism acts. Convenient sampling technique was used to select heads of the households, purposive sampling techniques to identify members of Nairobi County Security Board and snowball sampling to identify terror survivors. Key informants interview schedule as well as interview schedule were employed as methods of data collection. The data collected was subsequently analysed using both qualitative and quantitative methods. The results of the study indicated that public security screening in business buildings and other premises exist with the intention of securing public safety and permission to enter the building thus suspicion of individuals. The strategy relies on the cooperation of the public. The strategy presumes that every person seeking access to such spaces is a potential perpetrator and or victim of terrorism. Initially, the introduction of screening attracted mixed views. Some thought screening implied that one was a terror suspected. Screening has also affected social relations by rousing and increasing suspicion among citizens. In some cases, screening has been reported to compromise on the privacy of people. Consequently, to enhance its effectiveness, governments should enhance the laws on public security screening to elicit a sense of respect for privacy and subsequent cooperation among the public in its utilization.
This study is aiming at assessing the quality of work life for academic staff in Jordanian universities. And to identify the possibility of the existence of a statistical significant difference in their attitudes as it relates to quality of work life, which can be attributed to the variables of gender, age, academic rank, and experience. Academic staff were asked to fill questionnaire assessing the following QWL indicators: fair compensation, safe and healthy environment, work-life balance, social integration and career advancement towards university. The research most important findings and conclusions are: The arithmetic mean of the estimates of academic staff in the Jordanian universities towards quality of work life were moderate. Besides, there were no statistical significant on quality work life the due to variables (gender, age, academic qualification, experience).
The simplest element of human life is social action. Social action is a vital series of movements, which humans do to achieve a goal in relation with other human. People have an inherent need to social relations and therefore provide a situation that can experience the social relationship. The social and cultural relationships all happen in space so spaces contain social and cultural relations among certain groups and certain places. This happens in a specific period of time. So social life is located in spaces and time and limited by them. In the streets and urban centers and places, social activities generally have superficial modes; most of these activities are passive communication, like vision and hearing the sound of large number of anonymous people. But even this limited activity can also be very attractive. Today’s Life, the high speed causes the limited communication between citizens. In this busy fast life, more social activities (whether, willingly or unwillingly) is going to the passive social relationships. Transient looks, ambiguous and garbled sounds and…. This research in the first section is going to recognizethe social existing relations in Fahadan quarter of Yazd city and also existing public spaces in this area and in the next section the proposal of urban design strategies of public spaces in neighborhood level in order to prepare a good field and strengthening the passive social relations is taken into consideration. So in this way we can increase the quality of social relations between residents and also the amount of these relationships.