It is sometimes or even commonly believed that popular novels are not as significant as elite novels and they are written and read solely for the purpose of entertainment. The main goal of this article is to show that popular novels have the same value and because they have a much wider audience, they have a stronger influence on people than elite novels. The article achieves this goal by proving that these novels are concerned with social protest. Julia Alvarez’s How the Garcia Girls Lost Their Accents (1991), Chuck Palahniuk’s Fight Club (1996), Joe Klein’s Primary Colors: A Novel of Politics (1996), Toni Morrison’s Paradise (1997), and Stephen Chbosky’s The Perks of Being a Wallflower (1999) are five of the most well-known American popular novels in 1990s which addressed the social problems of the decade. The present article intends to examine social protest in these novels using the principles of cultural studies and according to some key figures in this field. The article offers a full investigation into these social issues in the novels: hardships of African-Americans, racism, patriarchy, hardships of adolescent life, hardships of living in a capitalist society, lost generation, consumerism, political corruption, immigration, assimilation and loss of identity. After examining all these issues, it is concluded that all these popular novels are concerned with social protest and thus they can be considered as significant as elite novels and maybe more significant due to their controversial quality and their wider range of readers.
Autism is a complex disorder with no specific diagnostic test so the disease is defined by its characteristics including cognitive defects, social, communication and behavioral problems, repetitive behaviors, unusual sensitivity to stimuli such as noise, restricted interests, and self stimulation. Exploration into the role of the immune system, genetic susceptibility, and environmental factors such as infections, vaccines, and diet has led to the emergence of numerous theoretical models to explain the biological basis for autism. Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) often suffer from gastrointestinal problems which may contribute to ASD behavioral symptoms. Developmental disabilities (DDs) are chronic physical, cognitive, speech or language, psychological, or self-care conditions that typically originate during childhood, are likely to continue indefinitely; and require additional coordinated services, support, or other assistance for an extended duration or during a lifetime. Developmental disabilities profoundly affect children’s health and functioning. Additional study of unmet needs and access to care is needed.