Social Media and Public Relations Counselling of Higher School Top Management in Nigeria (Published)
Social media have improved the operations of public relations. The ability of social media to elicit immediate feedback has made social media veritable tools in the hands of public relations practitioners in counselling school management on corporate policies. This study explores the pattern of social media usage by public relations practitioners. It shows the level of impact made with the use of social media in public relations practice in influencing management on corporate policies. The study was guided by diffusion of innovation theory and system theory. Diffusion of innovation theory offers a solid and replicable framework for the process of moving an innovation through a social system over time. System theory deals with the interactivity that exist in an organisation as a social system. Using the descriptive design, questionnaire was administered on 170 purposively selected public relations practitioners in some selected institutions of higher learning across the country but only 120 responded. Findings show that public relations practitioners use social media in influencing top school management on corporate policies. This is evident as all the respondents affirmed that they use social media such as WhatsApp, Facebook, Twitter, Youtube, Instagram, among others to inform and influence top school management on corporate policies. The study concludes that social media are potent tools in influencing school’s policy formulation and implementation. The study recommends that institutions of higher learning should formulate and implement productive ICT policies and public relations practitioners should be trained regularly on the use of social media with a consequent expectation of migrating from the analogue to digital culture.
Employing Online and Offline Qualitative Interpretive Case Studies in Understanding E-Procurement Effectiveness (Published)
This paper aims to shine a light on how an interpretive case study qualitative is being used in understanding the effectiveness of government e-procurement implementation and use contexts. Our study is based on a case of social media discussion and posting on government e-procurement implementation and use in Indonesian regency. We collected data from e-procurement users’ social media exchange, postings, and conversations posted by local businessmen and companies and from offline in-depth interviews with implementers. The findings show that social media observation can be used as research setting to enhance understanding of a topic being studied and as a medium for triangulation in an interpretive study. Our study also proves that using social media in interpretive study can reduce challenge in participants’ recruitment, access to study sites, and bias in interviews. More importantly, data from social media can enrich and verify offline interview data. While this study contributes to online interpretive research, the data was collected from online participants whose identities are difficult to verify. The data neither was validated with face to face interview. The use of social media for an interpretive study also raises an ethical dilemma because we observe and draw content from posted material in an online setting without users’ consent. This needs to consider new ethical issue by exploring ethic discourse in social media study.
Empirical Study of Features and Unsupervised Sentiment Analysis Techniques for Depression Detection in Social Media (Published)
This study provides an empirical evaluation of diverse traditional learning, deep learning, and unsupervised techniques based on diverse sets of features for the problem of depression detection among Twitter and Reddit users. The main objective of this study is to investigate the most appropriate features, document representations, and text classifiers for the significant problem of depression detection on social media microblogs, such as tweets, as well as macroblogs, such as posts on Reddit. The study’s investigation will concentrate on the linguistic characteristics, blogging behavior, and topics for features, multi-word, and word embeddings for document representation as well as on unsupervised learning for text clustering. This study will select the best approaches in the literature as baselines to practically examine them on the depressive and non-depressive dataset of blogs designed for this work. The study’s integrations and ensembles of the selected baselines will be experimented as well to recommend a design for an effective social media blog classifier based on unsupervised learning and WE document representation. The study concluded that the experiments proved that a stacking ensemble of Adam Deep Learning with SOM clustering followed by Agglomerative Hierarchical clustering with topic features and pre-trained word2vec embeddings achieved an accuracy more than 92% on Twitter and Reddit depression analysis datasets.
This study seeks to measure the factors related to social media functionality in the tourism industry promotion and its impact on the formation of Tourist Value Creation. This study hypothesized that media presence, information sharing, relational bonds, conversation, and reputation impact in tourist value creation (influence tourist planning/ taking trips). This study uses a quantitative research approach, with a cross-sectional design and a descriptive purpose. Each of the variables is measured using a 5-point Likert scale (the number of the items varied in each scale). This study distributed questionnaires online, using non-probability sample. The SPSS program is used to analyze the collected data. Based on this study’s outcome, all the hypotheses were supported except for one hypothesis. Social media functionality related to conversation development, information sharing, online presence, and reputation impact tourist value creation. Relationship building through social media was deemed insignificant. This study seeks to provide noncommercial accumulated and up-to-date knowledge in the discipline. Industry practitioners can apply the empirical findings from this academic research to their businesses in order to remain competitive.
Role of voter education in curbing electoral violence in the 2019 general elections in Enugu State, Nigeria (Published)
In recent years, every election season in Nigeria has been marred by a gory cycle of electoral violence that claim many innocent lives. The broad objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the mass media, social media, and word-of-mouth communication as voter education tools for curbing electoral violence in the 2019 general elections in Enugu State of Nigeria. The study was conducted by using an opinion survey, and questionnaires distributed through physical and online methods were the major instruments for data collection. The respondents were made up of electorates drawn from the 23 local government areas of Enugu State, Nigeria. Results from the study indicate that the social media and mass media communication tools employed in voter education campaigns against electoral violence in the 2019 general elections in Enugu State, Nigeria, were not significantly effective, while the word-of-mouth communication approaches employed were effective. The ineffectiveness of the social media and mass media as communication channels for voter education aimed at curbing electoral violence in the State was traced to the disconnect between the messenger (Nigerian politicians) and their messages. The lack of trust among electorates for the political actors affected their acceptance of the messages on electoral violence from those channels because they were perceived as using them for mere publicity purposes and also doing things different from what they were preaching. Based on this outcome it was recommended among other things that a proactive nationwide voter education campaign should be initiated through social media, the mass media, and word-of-mouth communication to enlighten the Nigerian populace on the dangers of electoral violence before every election season in the country.
The chain of influence between government, retail, and consumers is immense and takes different forms. The growth of the internet, specifically social media, has amplified the chain of influence. Governments influence on social media retail businesses, which influences the manner in which retailers influence their consumers. The chain of influence may come from either way and may begin with consumers or retailers to influence the government. However, the government`s engagement in social media has been in different forms, including governments as participants, governments as a regulator and government as an investor. Either of these approaches influence the manner in which the retail sector engages its consumers. This paper explores government policies that impact social media in the retail business. First, it will explore the influence of social media on retailers. It is then that government policies can be built on these influences to determine the chain of influence. The paper will consider issues of taxation, consumer rights, laws of quality, and government`s infrastructure policies.
Influence social media on the implementation of public relations in selected higher learning institutions in northern Tanzania (Published)
The paper assessed the influence of social media on the implementation of public relations. Research approaches were quantitative and qualitative research (explanatory correlation and case study designs). Simple random sampling, purposive and stratified sampling procedures were used to select University staff and students The target population was higher learning institutions in Northern Tanzania. Quantitative data was analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Data was anlaysed through frequencies, percentages, means and narratives. The study had two hypotheses which were tested using independent t-test analysis. Both null hypotheses were rejected and alternative hypotheses were stated. The findings showed that majority of respondents agreed that social media is a significant tool in influencing public relations programmes towards improving stakeholders relations in higher learning institutions. The study recommended that public relations managers and communication officers in the organization should increase and improve utilization of social media for the success of their communication strategies in the institution.
Utilization of Social Media for Academic Purposes by Business Education Students in Nigerian Colleges of Education (Published)
The proliferation of social media platforms and the high volume of social media subscription by members of the academia demand that researches be conducted to investigate its influence on academic activities among students and teachers. This study examined the influence of social media on academic activities of business education students in colleges of education in Osun State. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study, Three research questions guided the study.The study was conducted in the two Colleges of Education in Osun State offering Business Education programme. Osun State College of Education, Ila Orangun and Osun State College of Education, Ilesa. No sample was drawn as a census study was conducted. A structured questionnaire with 38 items was used to collect data from the respondents. Mean rating was used to analyze the data collected in order to answer the research questions. The study identified various social media platforms being used by business education teachers and students for academic activities by business education students in colleges of education in Osun State. The study revealed that in spite of a few challenges, social media are being reasonably utilized for teaching and learning and they collectively have salutary influence on academic activities. It was recommended that business education students should be better encouraged to use various social media platforms for academic activities while various group chats should be created in order to academic interactions on the social media.
Social Media as Civic Space for Political Literacy among Older Adult Citizens in Port Harcourt, Nigeria (Published)
While ubiquitous in everyday use, in reality social media usage by the older adult is not very common and in particular in the teaching of civic duties and electioneering campaign. The purpose of this study was to find out what social media platform older adults commonly use to acquire political literacy in urban indigenous communities in Nigeria; what political literacies do older adults acquire through the various social media. The study was conducted during the 2019 general election in Nigeria using the questionnaire survey. The study shows that facebook and WhatsApp are the most used social media for political literacy during electioneering period; that greater number of older adults uses the social media to know party symbols; names of political parties, read party manifestos, that social media provides the civic space for older adults to acquire, update and retool their skills for the performance of their civic duties and obligation as senior citizens and that intercultural and interreligious dialogue is not mostly accessed by the older adults as part of their political literacy education. It was concluded that literate older adults are virtually visible in the social media and that in respect of gender gap, that men are more visible in social media in accessing and acquiring political literacy through the social media than women.
This ear with the rapidly growing of internet and network using there are a huge data that have been introduced, Big Data are now on the double expanding rabidly in all domains, including opinion and sentiment analysis, for there are many social media and other websites that offer chances to provide the visitors and customers to post their opinion which usually contains valuable information that could be helpfully for several issues. And there are different methods and techniques that proposed to face this huge data and the big social data to make it more beneficial for several fields. This Paper introduces the big data and the most common it is usage and challenge, and it also investigate the sentiment analysis and it is common techniques and thinking about it is futures. This paper also thinking about the future of big data and opinion mining is clearly discussed and thinking about the future of big data and opinion mining. And the paper will discuss the challenges that facing the big data and opinion mining.
Use of Social Media in Mobilising Support for Abductees in Nigeria: A Study of Epe School Kidnap (Published)
This work examines social media usage to support abductees in Nigeria, beaming its searchlight on the case of the 6 Epe school boys, who were kidnapped at The Lagos State Model College on May 24, 2017. This study seeks to know various ways the social media contribute to the freedom of abductees in Nigeria and how potent the social media could be in mobilising support for them. The survey method was adopted, and questionnaire was used to collect data. For this study, 528 questionnaires were given to respondents in the 66 streets on Eredo Local Council Development Area (LCDA), in Epe Local Government of Lagos State. 521 of the questionnaire were returned. Eredo has a population of 18,590, and 3% of the population was used. Purposive sampling method was chosen for this study. This is adopted in order to select the members of the population that are fit to give the correct answers to the research questions. The findings of this study reveal that the contributions of Nigerians and social media outcry made the government and its agencies to take speedy action on the abduction of the Epe school boys. This study finds out that the social media has the power to reach a large number of Nigerians faster than other media of communication. This study therefore recommends that the Civil Society organisations in Nigeria and Human Right Groups should explore the advantages of the social media to reach the people and the government alike. The study also recommends that Nigerians still need orientations on how to maximize the power of the social media.
Social media are technologies that facilitate social interaction, make possible collaboration and enable deliberation across stakeholders. The study sought to develop strategies for managing the influence of social media on students’ discipline in secondary schools. The objective of this paper is to determine the extent to which social media has influenced students’ discipline in schools based on the research. The study utilized the pragmatic philosophical paradigm and the mixed methods research design where both positivists and constructivists approaches and techniques were combined. The study was undertaken in Bungoma County in Kenya. It was carried out in 306 secondary schools in the County targeting a population of 19,000 Form 3 students. Scott Smith`s formula was used to determine the sample size of 600 students from 40 secondary schools as respondents. Purposive sampling was applied to select the 40 deputy principals and 40 heads of guidance and counselling departments from the selected secondary schools as respondents in the study. Three categories of boys’, girls’ and mixed schools were chosen from each sub-county. The questionnaires used had both closed- and open-ended items. Interviews were also used to get more information for the study. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to analyse data. Social media was found to have influenced students’ discipline negatively in schools. The study recommended that parents, educational and political leaders should implement policies on limiting social media influence on students’ discipline. It is expected that the Kenya Ministry of Education and other education stakeholders will utilize the results of the study to manage the influence of the social media on students’ discipline in secondary schools.
The contributions of Social Media as sources of information to the Newspapers in Tanzania (Published)
The attention of this study was to examine the contributions made by social media as “sources of information” to the newspapers in Tanzania. Specifically, the study examined the extent through which social media had contributed news stories for the selected newspapers in the country. The study also sought to determine the social media which had often contributed news stories to the selected newspapers. Lastly, the study, pursued to determine the contents and nature of the stories retrieved from the social media by the selected newspapers. This was a content analysis study which utilized documentary review of the three selected newspapers. Three newspapers of Mwananchi, Daily News, and the Citizen were purposefully selected for the study. A recording manual was designed and used during the documentary review and the unit of analysis included: hard news stories, soft news stories, column, editorial comment, features and sports stories. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data since the study carried qualitative data. The findings suggest that social media have played a significant contribution in providing news stories for the newspapers in Tanzania. It further suggest that, in all social media used, Twitter is the number one social media which provides more news stories to the newspapers in Tanzania. Lastly, the findings suggest that most of the news stories retrieved from social media were political stories, entertainment, and sports.
Social Media and Effective Public Relations Practice in Nigeria: Implications, Challenges and Strategies (Published)
Since the advent of the social media, pundits have been arguing over its impact on public relations (PR) practice. While some believe that the profession is heading to the grave, others posit that social media actually facilitate and catalyze PR work. This paper is of the position that the prediction of ‘death’ for PR is a metaphor describing of the consequence of the failure to adopt new methods of PR engagement in a social media era. Drawing evidence from extant literature, the paper scrutinizes the ambiguities surrounding the conceptions of ‘new’ and ‘social’ media, and explores the boundaries of PR influence in a digitized media space. Through the lens of ‘Social Construction Theory’ and the ‘Impression Management Theory’, the essay examines the implications and challenges of social media adaptation, for PR practice in a developing country like Nigeria. It interrogates the impact of the organic social media conversations on brand perception and offers recommendations for optimizing the use of media tools for PR purposes.
Effects of Social Media on the Academic Achievement of Students: A Case Study of the Students of the Department of Arts Education, Kogi State University, Anyigba, Nigeria (Published)
Information and communication technology (ICT) has experienced a huge transformation over the past decade. This has culminated into the world becoming a global village. Today most people use the social media for a variety of purposes. With the number of social media users growing worldwide, it is important to ascertain its effects on students’ academic performance. This paper, anchored on the time displacement theory, investigated the effects of the social media on the achievement of students of the Department of Arts Education, Kogi State University, Anyigba. The sample consist 400 students across the 4 levels. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire titled Social Media and Academic Achievement Questionnaire (SMAAQ) developed by the researchers. The data was analyzed using simple percentage. The result of the study reveals that majority of the students use social media, spending a lot of time which displaces their study time. Based on this finding, the paper recommends that tertiary institutions should devise strategies where students could utilize social media for academic use instead of other uses which have negative effects on their studies.
Influence of Social Media on Academic Performance of Business Education Students of Public Universities in South-East States of Nigeria (Published)
The main purpose of the study was to determine the influence of social media on academic performance of business education students in public universities in South-East States of Nigeria. Two research questions and two null hypothesis guided the study. The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The population was 397 students of business education programme in the seven public universities in South-East states of Nigeria. The entire population was used for the study, therefore there was no sampling. The instrument used for data collection was a 20 items questionnaire structure in four point rating scale. The instrument was validated by three experts. The reliability of the instrument was conducted using Cronbach Alpha and it yielded 0.86. Out of 397 copies of the questionnaire distributed to the respondents 374 was returned representing 94.21% returned rate. Mean with standard deviation was used to answer the research questions and the null hypothesis were tested at 0.05 level of significant using t-test. The findings of the study showed that social media influences the students’ academic performance positively and negatively in business education. Based on the finding, recommendations were made which include that students should be encouraged to utilize social media in the way that it will positively influence the academic performance, and students should be given assignments and research work to keep them busy away from the negative use.
The Role of Social Media towards Political Accountability in Pakistan: A Literature Review (Published)
Democracy is globally accepted form of government, especially when the technological development going to make this world a global village. Scholars think about the ideas of global democratic government, wherein short fall of democracy is ill-fated. However, political accountability is the essential characteristics of democracy and it cannot flourish without it. This paper adopts a qualitative approach by using qualitative content analysis and observation over social networking sites (SNS), in which democracy, accountability, and freedom of expression will extensively use. The extensive literature review indicates that social media facilitates the freedom of expression, provides opportunities of direct political participation, improves the electoral process and increase political accountability in authoritarian countries and emerging democracies. However, an emerging democracy like Pakistan, where social media trend is up surging and accountability condition is destitute. It is highly justified to investigate the role of social media towards political accountability.
Online communication has seen the emergence of those who may be called ‘norm generators’. Norm generators are producing changes in social practices and linguistic norms with implication on language use. The major culprit is English Language in Nigeria. Using data from online media platforms, this paper examines the emerging culture of netspeak within the Nigerian digital space and how it affects the various aspects of the publishing ecosystem. Findings from the corpus analysis of the data reveal that changes in the linguistic norms of English affect issues, such as writing, editing, typesetting and formatting of manuscripts. The paper concludes that if adequate care is not taken to harmonise and reinforce the conventional norms and practice, variations in the emerging English norms within the Nigerian digital space and publishing ecosystem will negatively affect proper English usage. Above all, it will adversely affect the quality of publishing generally in the ecosystem.
Analysis of the Use of Social Media Advertising among Selected Online Businesses in Nigeria (Published)
This study sought to analyse the use of social media advertising among selected online businesses in Nigeria. It studies the frequency of use of SMA/SMM (social media advertising/marketing) among businesses in Nigeria, the most preferred social media platform as well as the benefits and challenges inherent in the adoption of SMA by online businesses in Nigeria. This was done using the Survey method, surveying a total of hundred (100) businesses and the study was hinged on Technological determinism and diffusion of innovation theories. Findings revealed that online businesses in Nigeria have embraced social media advertising. It was also revealed that a number of challenges militate against the adoption of SMA by online businesses in Nigeria, salient among them is Lack of technical know how. Based on the findings, it was recommended that businesses embrace Social media advertising as it has come to stay, furthermore a model “the RIAER” was proposed to serve as a guide in implementing social media ad campaigns.
The current study aims to investigate the impact of social media on social change of Burma. It is a deductive study in which cross-section survey designed was chosen to collect the data. An online survey instrument was generated by the research for data collection. Due to the shortage of time and resources the instrument was attached to the most popular social sites of Burma like; 7Day News Journal, Eleven Media Group & BBC Burmes. These sites were selected due to their wide access range in Burma and highest number of followers. In total 338 samples were collected after the deduction of missing values and outliers, 314 samples were declared valid for further analysis. Majority of the respondents were young male having bachelor degree education. Data was analyzed through SPSS 21.0 for windows. The results show that overall, mean value was in between 2.3-3.92 and standard deviation in between 1.06-2.21.Cronbach alpha was conducted to examine item’s internal consistency, overall reliability was found 0.81. Both hypotheses were accepted. This study finds that social media has significant and positive impact on social change. This study was not free from the limitations. Future research can be conducted on longitudinal method; broadcast as well as print media can also be examined.