A Bi-Criteria Optimization Model and Methodology for Rail Construction Using Real Data from Ghana (Published)
Rail construction to link major towns or cities is capital intensive, affecting directly or indirectly the tax-payer and owners of property and businesses situated along the path of the rail network. It is in this regard especially that actions that can mitigate or reduce the impact to victims and extraneous cost to the project become important. Two ways are to identify and use the shortest path linking the source and the destination and to factor into the project the cost of demolition and or displacement of property, persons, and businesses. In a previous work of the authors, a bi-criteria optimization model and methodology was developed for the problem in which both the distance and the costs of compensations referred to as Social Cost by the authors were minimized concurrently. Unlike the previous works however, the current paper is premised on testing the model and methodology on real data obtained in connection with a potential case of rail construction to link a town and a major City in Ghana. Furthermore, unlike in the previous works, a model is developed for the social cost criterion and the resulting bi-criteria optimization model run in Matlab using the real data. The results produced four non-dominated paths with the same distance and social cost values for decision-making. Therefore, there can be costs benefits in approaching rail construction in Ghana on the basis of the model.
Social Cost Accounting and Profitability of Glaxo Smith Kline Nigeria Plc. Listed On the NSE (Published)
This study examined the relationship between social cost accounting and profitability with a focus on GlaxoSmithKline Consumer Nigeria PLC in a case study. The study adopted employee benefits, incentives welfare and healthcare cost (EBI) and contribution to government revenue (CGR) as proxy for social cost accounting (the independent variables), while profit after tax (PAT) representing profitability was adopted as the dependent variable. Secondary data for the selected study variables were obtained through content analysis of the annual reports of GlaxoSmithKline for the period 2011 to 2018. The study employed descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis based on the E-view 10 software as techniques for data analysis. The results revealed that all the independent variables had positive relationship with profit after tax, but only contribution to government revenue was significant at 5% level. The regression results also showed that the coefficient of determination (R-squared) value of approximately 0.94 indicating that 94% of changes in the dependent variable are accounted for by the combined effect of changes in the independent variables. The combined effect of variations of the explanatory variables significantly explained changes in the dependent variable with probability of F-statistic value of 0.000007 (at 5% level of significance). The study concluded that social cost accounting is significantly related to profitability. Based on the findings of the study it was recommended that the management of GlaxoSmithKline should continue to implement the social cost accounting policies already put in place as they provide a good social image for the company, and that would guarantee the long run success and survival of the company.