The Effects of Social Change and Religious Conflicts in Nigeria: Impacts on Civil Democracy and National Integration (Published)
This research evaluated the effects of social change and religious conflicts; and the impacts on Nigeria’s civil democracy and national integration. The research is a cross-sectional descriptive survey. Berger and Luckmann’s social construction of reality; and Burton’s human needs theories of conflict management were adopted. Three (3) out of the six (6) geo-political zones in Nigeria were randomly sampled for the study. A multi-staged sampling technique was used in the study. In the first stage, 40 people were randomly sampled for focused Group Discussion (FGD) from each of the three geo-political zones used in study making a total of 120. In the second stage, oral and telephone interviews which were conducted on 25 religious and 25 political leaders using simple random sampling making a total of 50. In the third stage, 120 respondents were further randomly sampled among Christians and Muslims in each of the 3 geo-political zones making a total of 360. The researcher assimilated and applied the qualitative data obtained through Focus Group Discussions (FGD), and interviews in the work. Descriptive statistics was performed and results were summarized in frequency and percentage, and presented in tables. Hypotheses were tested with ANOVA and Spearman’s rho. Hypothesis testing with ANOVA reveals a significant difference in the means, as well as p-values less than the significance level of 0.05: on adaptation of traditional culture to foreign influence (p=0.000), politicization of religion (p=0.003), transformation of many indigenous practices from mode of dress to design of houses (p= 0.000) ethnicity (p= 0.002). The hypothesis was therefore rejected which shows that the effects of social change have impacts on civil democracy and national integration. The result of spearman rho correlation that the impacts of the effect of religious conflicts at (p>0.01) including: destruction of lives and properties, drain of the economy, drain in manpower development, breach in political processes; emergence of widows and fatherless children, and insecurity of lives and properties on civil democracy and national integration did not differ significantly among religious affiliations, which depicts that both religious affiliations (Christians and Muslims) agree that the effects of religious conflicts have impacts on civil democracy and national integration. The null hypothesis was therefore accepted. The paper recommends that adoption of authentic federalism is inevitable for sustainable democracy and national integration.
The current study aims to investigate the impact of social media on social change of Burma. It is a deductive study in which cross-section survey designed was chosen to collect the data. An online survey instrument was generated by the research for data collection. Due to the shortage of time and resources the instrument was attached to the most popular social sites of Burma like; 7Day News Journal, Eleven Media Group & BBC Burmes. These sites were selected due to their wide access range in Burma and highest number of followers. In total 338 samples were collected after the deduction of missing values and outliers, 314 samples were declared valid for further analysis. Majority of the respondents were young male having bachelor degree education. Data was analyzed through SPSS 21.0 for windows. The results show that overall, mean value was in between 2.3-3.92 and standard deviation in between 1.06-2.21.Cronbach alpha was conducted to examine item’s internal consistency, overall reliability was found 0.81. Both hypotheses were accepted. This study finds that social media has significant and positive impact on social change. This study was not free from the limitations. Future research can be conducted on longitudinal method; broadcast as well as print media can also be examined.
This article is focussed on the role of post-colonial bureaucracy in a former princely state Khairpur (Pakistan). It is argued that the bureaucracy treated people in a similar way the colonial bureaucracy dealt with people of British India. This paper also argues that the post-colonial bureaucracy has played largely a political role since the inception of Pakistan in 1947. During the One-Unit Scheme (1955-1970) it became a tool to monopolise power, dominate people and control the resources in a similar way the colonial bureaucracy did it in British India. Thus, the post-colonial bureaucracy failed to appreciate the formation of new public space and the emergence of rural change as an outcome of technological change in agriculture.
Emergence of novel in the late nineteenth century Colonial Sindh (Review Completed - Accepted)
The need for globalising knowledge of Victorian culture has become increasingly important factor for ‘revitalisation of the field.’ Joshi has argued that the ‘Victorian metropolis was hegemonic and defined the terms of production in the Colonial periphery, if not by direct economic power then by indirect cultural influence.’ Thus, she has analysed the impact of Victorian culture in India. However, this paper is focussed on analysis of the impact of Victorian thinking and ideas on novel writing in Nineteenth Century Sindh which received these ideas by Colonial means. It contributes to the little understanding of Victorian influence outside England. This article attempts to examine the way in which conceptualisation and visualisation of social issues dealt by Sindhi novel was significantly influenced by the Victorian novel.