Implementation of human rights and rights to health for people living with HIV / AIDS in Albania. (Review Completed - Accepted)
Without doubt , HIV / AIDS is a global epidemic , and is defined by UNDP (2005 ) as a disease ” that caused the change of the single greatest human development in modern history .” UNAIDS Report of the International Day of HIV / AIDS of 2010 on the Global AIDS Epidemic estimated that at the end of 2010 there were 34 million people living with HIV , where the majority has 22.5 million sub-Saharan Africa . It still shows a large number of new infections and a significant expansion of access to antiretroviral therapy , which has helped reduce the number of deaths related to AIDS , especially in recent years . The epidemic of HIV / AIDS is now a global crisis and is part of one of the most difficult challenges for development and social progress . Throughout the years of the war against AIDS has been clear that human rights are essential for an effective response to HIV . In countries where human rights are not protected , people suffer more stigma and discrimination , get ill and are unable to support themselves and their families , and if they do not receive treatment and may die .
HIV / AIDS is an issue of human rights for ( Tallis , 2002 ) :
( i) lack of access to prevention methods , materials and information on the appropriate treatment and care in making that PJHA be a vulnerable population, in turn , HIV- related violations of human rights such as poverty , inequality , racism and sexism .
( ii ) PJHA and those affected by this epidemic are often unable to live a life of dignity , equality and freedom , because their rights are often violated because of their HIV status . This includes the rights to privacy , confidentiality , access to acceptable health care services, sexual and reproductive health , employment , education, freedom of movement .
Besides pain that gives individuals and their families , the epidemic is profoundly social and economic structure of society . HIV / AIDS is a major threat to the world of work : it is affecting the most productive segment of the labor force and reducing earnings , imposing huge costs on enterprises in all sectors through reduced productivity , increased labor costs and loss of skills and experience . In addition, HIV / AIDS is affecting fundamental rights at work , particularly with regard to discrimination and stigmatization of workers and people affected by HIV / AIDS .
The approach based on human rights states that all people should enjoy a pleasant life in which every person is able to develop his human potential . Human rights set global standards for the welfare and human development ( DAW , WHO , UNAIDS, 2000) . As a derivative approach to human rights -based approach is developed in the right to health , which means that the norms and principles of human rights are
integrated in the design , implementation , monitoring and evaluation of health policies and programs .
Historically , approaches to human rights in developing countries have tended to privilege the civil and political rights and socio – economic development. In the early years of the epidemic , attention was focused on PJHA and discrimination against vulnerable groups . For many developing countries as a narrow concept of rights failed to integrate with a full line of social factors , political and cultural , highlighting the vulnerability to HIV and AIDS response ( Heywood & Altman , 2000 ) .