Small Organic Farming: The Case of Pepper (Piper Nigrum L.) Value Chain in São Tomé and Príncipe (Published)
Organic agriculture, in addition to supporting environmental sustainability, has been a meaningful way to protect and develop small farming in developing regions. The changes that have occurred within the value chain, such as increases in global standards and the effect of globalisation, have created an increase in both opportunities and risks for smallholders. In the developing countries, mainly on African continent organic agriculture beyond being less researched than in the developed ones, there are constraints related to scale, certification policies, strategies, and the fact that most farmers remain in informal circuits. This paper presents a study of the pepper value chain in São Tomé e Príncipe, which is divided into two categories: certified organic producers, affiliated (Aff) to the Cooperative of Pepper and Vanilla Export (CEPIBA) and non-certified organic pepper, non-affiliated farmers (Naf). The study presents the strategy to promote organic farming through the value chain and a brief comparison among certified and non-certified organic producers. The results showed that Aff perform better than Naf because they have financial stability and apply sustainable practices that are more productive and provide better income, while Naf generally practice subsistence farming with the exception of some medium enterprises.
Analysis of factors influencing sustainable adoption of improved maize technologies among smallholder farmers in Ugenya Sub-County, Kenya (Published)
Most smallholder farmers who account for more than 70% of the maize produced in Kenya are perpetually food insecure and stuck below poverty level. Sustained maize yield increase largely depends on long term adoption of modern farming technology. However, despite the high yields associated with modern maize technology promotion during and shortly after implementation phase of many projects, sustainability of the technologies still remains a challenge for smallholder maize producers in Kenya. The objective of this study was to analyse factors that influence sustainable adoption of maize technologies beyond the promotion phase among smallholder farmers in Ugenya Sub-County. An ex post facto research was carried out where one hundred and eighty eight smallholder farmers were selected through simple random sampling from purposively selected study population in Ugenya Sub-County. The data was subjected to Independent 2-Sample T-Test and multiple regression analysis. Maize yields obtained by inputs subsidy beneficiaries and non beneficiaries during post-subsidy support phase were not statistically significant (p>0.05). Except for on-farm labour availability and farmer’s farming experience (p<0.05) all other socio-economic, technical, management and institutional factors known to influence farming technology adoption had no significant influence on average maize yield (p>0.05) in the study area. The study recommended that smallholder farmers should operate under a functional structure such as farmers’ association that will support timely access to key factors of production, optimize on benefits of the economies of scale, enforce sustainable practices and serve as a linkage to key enterprise value chain actors.
Analysis of Labour Productivity and Constraints of Rubber Latex Exploitation among Smallholder Rubber Farmers in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria (Published)
The objective of the study was conducted to analyze labour productivity and constraints of small holder rubber farmers in the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria. Primary data were collected from 300 rubber farmer using purposive and random sampling techniques. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Likert scale and labour productivity model. Result of the analysis revealed that wage tapping and share arrangement accounted for 43.33 percent and 36.33 percent respectively. Labour productivity analysis revealed a yield of 826,434.31 kg dry rubber per year and gross income of N81, 949,226.18 per year while the output per man day was 22.58 kg. Wage / man day was N377.78, while an average plantation owner reaps N1,860.56 after adjustments were made to wages and other costs of operation. The major constraints of rubber farmers included shortage and high cost of labour ranked the first major problem, inadequate credit as the second most important and significant constraint of rubber farmers while poor rubber prices and storage facilities problem were the third and the fourth most important significant problems faced by respondents. The study however recommended that rubber farmers should form cooperative societies and associations to enable them access production credit from commercial and Nigerian Agricultural Cooperative and Rural Development Bank (NACRDB) for rubber production.
Factors Influencing Participation in Rice Development Projects: The Case of Smallholder Rice Farmers in Northern Ghana (Published)
Participation in rice development project is an important platform for joint learning and technology transfer. The present study quantifies the factors influencing participation in rice development projects among smallholder rice farmers in Northern Ghana. A total of 400 rice farmers selected through multi-stage sampling technique were interviewed. The result shows a significant variation in the demographic and institutional characteristics among the farmers by participation in rice development projects. Participation in rice development projects in Northern Ghana is influenced by age of the household head, marital status, access to off-farm income, market price of rice, knowledge of rice varieties and access to credit and the interactive term education and farm size. The packaging of agricultural technologies by research institutions and agricultural development organizations should focus on making them more receptive to farmers through effective training and demonstrations in order to boost participation, adoption, production and farmers income.