Tag Archives: Slavery

A Psychoanalytic Reading in Toni Morrison’s Beloved: Trauma, Hysteria and Electra Complex (Published)

Psychoanalysis seems to be the most suitable approach to analyze and interpret Toni Morrison’s Beloved. Freud is the founder of this theory in which he was able to explain human behavior through dreams and unconscious symptoms. Beloved is recognized as one of the most modern novels to apply psychoanalysis theories. In this research, I am going to explain these theories in the novel through characters and some important incidents that occurred in a great part of the novel. Sethe is the central character in the novel , she was influenced by her actions, especially killing her innocent daughter. It was evident that she had experienced a harsh treatment in her past. She suffers from slavery, oppression and raping in  Mr.Garner Sweet Home in Kentucky. Trauma, hysteria, Oedipal complex are very clear to readers as psychological symptoms in Beloved. Many critics have written and discussed the theories of psychoanalysis in the novel such as Kristin Boudreau in her article “Pain and the unmaking of self in Toni Morrison’s Beloved”. She asserted that” People attempted to find an outlet to help them to clear out their painful experiences and hurtful past”. Sethe released her negative emotions and her stored desires by killing her innocent daughter. In the end, Many readers believe Morrison’s novels are the establishment of her envisioned tradition. She challenges and requires the reader to accept her on her own terms.

 

Keywords: Holocaust, Hysteria, Psychoanalysis, Sethe, Slavery, oedipal complex

Socio, Economic and Political Significance of Rap Culture on African Americans (Published)

Rap music is a derivative of the oral form of literature, which is man’s original medium of self-expression and artistic creativity. Rap music is a highly prolific component of a popular culture which has served as a means of expressing the plight of the black man in a predominantly prejudiced white society. Rap music came as a result of the elongated measure of exposure to slavery, segregation and prejudice. In order to air their mind, different forms of literature were employed, one of which is Rap music which has been identified as (Rhythm and Blues). This work takes a look into the socio, economic and political significances of Rap culture on African-Americans and how it enhances their lives.

Keywords: Culture, Economic, Political, Rap, Slavery

The Eclipse of the Institution of Slavery and its Impact on the pre-colonial state of Ibadan, 1873-1900 (Published)

The concept of progress among individuals, communities and organisations globally implies positive changes. The process of change itself is a normal occurrence and this is why it has been regarded as the most permanent phenomenon in human history. However, it must be noted that despite its permanent nature, societies view the concept of change as less desirable than status quo because of the fear of the unknown. This is applicable to development in the pre-colonial state of Ibadan. The Ibadan of our period introduced quite a lot of dynamism into statecraft. The changes swept through governance, agro-allied and local industrial production; marketing and diplomacy, both at home and in the vassal states. However, decision makers in Ibadan were reluctant when it was their turn to experience similar changes. This is not surprising because the wind of change that confronted the status quo in Ibadan was massive, such that the existing arrangement in which slaves were practically made the mainstay of the political economy of the state, collapsed under the new arrangement that was introduced by the British. This paper therefore, discusses the prelude to the sweeping changes and their effects on the society.

Keywords: Eclipse, Ibadan, Impact, Slavery, pre-colonial

The System of Slavery in Bakor, South-Eastern Nigeria 1850-1960 (Published)

The subject of slavery, especially the status of slaves in African societies, has understandably attracted scholarly attention. Using Bakor society in south-eastern Nigeria as a case study, this paper seeks to contribute to existing knowledge about slave systems in Nigeria. On the basis of fieldwork carried out in Mfom, an Ekajuk community in Bakor area, in conjunction with relevant written sources, it has been established that a sizable percentage of Bakor population is of slave origin. These slaves were originally recruited from outside Bakorland and the primary reason for the purchase of slaves was to augment the population of matrilineages which appeared to be declining during the period covered by this study. It was for this reason that female slaves were preferred. The study also shows that there existed an efficient traditional method of intergrating slaves into the society. This, in addition to the fact that slaves never suffered any form of discrimination made it difficult to distinguish between slave and free born.

Keywords: Bansara, Cross River, Mfom, Nigeria, Slavery

The Impact of Colonization on the African Writer’s Psychological Behavior (Published)

This paper deals with the Impact of Colonization on the African Writer’s Psychological Behavior. It takes the African writer and the major role of the Psychological Behavior as stimulation factor in writing about Colonization. Therefore, colonialism is considered to be a relationship between the indigenous majority and a small number of foreign invaders in which decisions made by colonizers directly affect the lives of the colonized people. European powers became more and more interested in gaining territories for themselves. Many European countries felt that their resources were in short supply after industrialization and were keen to find new resources such as gold and ivory. However, it is probably the combination of several suppositions that is best suited to capture the motivating factors. It becomes us to bear in mind that the conquest of Africa was not carried out by a monolithic entity with a single set of objectives

Keywords: Religion., Slavery, Wealth, Western-Style Education

The System of Slavery in Bakor, South-Eastern Nigeria, 1850-1960 (Published)

The subject of slavery, especially the status of slaves in African societies, has understandably attracted scholarly attention. Using Bakor society in south-eastern Nigeria as a case study, this paper seeks to contribute to existing knowledge about slave systems in Nigeria. On the basis of fieldwork carried out in Mfom, an Ekajuk community in Bakor area, in conjunction with relevant written sources, it has been established that a sizable percentage of Bakor population is of slave origin. These slaves were originally recruited from outside Bakorland and the primary reason for the purchase of slaves was to augment the population of matrilineages which appeared to be declining during the period covered by this study. It was for this reason that female slaves were preferred. The study also shows that there existed an efficient traditional method of intergrating slaves into the society. This, in addition to the fact that slaves never suffered any form of discrimination made it difficult to distinguish between slave and free born.

Keywords: Bansara, Cross River, Mfom, Nigeria, Slavery