Tag Archives: Skills

The tourism education and the tourism industry imbalances: a review of skills, curriculum proponents and the way forward (Published)

The tourism sector is a complex industry, encompassing a wide range of labour needs from nonqualified to high-qualified personnel. However, it appears that tourism education society has evolved in a heterogeneous and ad hoc manner and does not necessarily meet the tourism industry’s skills-set needs. Tourism education confronts daunting problems in practice and curriculum development that call for innovative approaches and alliances, intended to enhance the graduates’ knowledge and skills. Therefore, this paper aims to ascertain the existence of gaps in tourism curricula development and skills sets required by the tourism industry. The paper findings emphasize stakeholders’ collaboration framework; tourism educators, students, parents, and government(s) to address the mismatch. In addition, the findings point to the importance of vocational and liberal approaches in tourism teachings, using a systematic approach. This study’s ideologies help the tourism curriculum developers, and tourism stakeholders harmonize their persuasions for satisfaction on both ends.

Keywords: Skills, Stakeholders, Tourism Industry, tourism curriculum, tourism education

Adverse Effects of the Current Instructional Practices for Macro and Micro Language Skills on Saudi EFL Learners’ Skills and Competencies (Published)

Instructional approaches to language teaching are cornerstones around which to build effective processes for learning English, or more precisely the most successful and effective ways to learn English. The aim of this article is to explore the adverse effects that current instructional practices, which favor using the four macro language skills along with other language-related skills, have on the development of Saudi EFL learners’ skills and competencies. In particular, we identify the extent to which teaching the four macro language skills and other language-related skills together in the Saudi EFL educational system negatively impacts the abilities of those who are learning English as a foreign language (EFL). We highlight the ineffective, indeed detrimental, effects of EFL teaching practices in the classroom, derived as a result of intensive research with data gathered from both digital and non-digital sources and studies and from our own thorough compilation, observations, mosaic of evidence, and in-depth analysis. We hope that this study will be useful for improving EFL teaching in Saudi English classrooms and will ultimately contribute to the attainment of higher English proficiency.


Keywords: Competencies, Skills, four macro language skills, instructional practices, language-related skills, pedagogic approaches. Saudi EFL learners

The Skill Gap between Printing Education and Printing Industry in Ghana (Published)

One of the objectives of Polytechnic Education (Technical University Education) in Ghana is the promotion of technical and vocational education and training, technology transfer and skills development to enhance the socio-economic development of the country. Polytechnic education plays a significant role in human resource development of a country by employing skilled manpower, enhancing industrial productivity and improving the status quo (quality of life). The main aim of the study was to identify and to address the gap between printing education and printing industry at Takoradi Polytechnic; so as to restructure the curriculum to reflect what is being done in the printing industry across the country. The literature review has been organized together with sub-headings as contained in the subsequent pages and have been reviewed in line with the views of scholars to help readers have an in-depth knowledge and understanding of the topic.The main respondents for the study included students and lecturers in the Department of Graphic Design Technology, Takoradi Polytechnic on one side and working staff of the selected printing firms in the Accra Metropolis. The researchers implemented the use of open and close type of questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and full-participant observational method in gathering data for the study. The study revealed that the Polytechnic Printing programme should be revised by the Polytechnic and the Department of Graphic Design to help produce skilled trained Graphic Designers to fit into the trending Digital Printing Industry. The study exposed that issues that are affecting the Polytechnic students in acquiring the necessary training and skills to march up to the Printing industry is the curriculum. If the Polytechnic curriculum is revised and students are provided with enough practical skills it is believed that the gap between the Printing Education and Printing Industry for the Polytechnic objectives will be achieved.


Keywords: Education, Printing Industry, Skills, Training, industralisation, polytechnic (technical university)

Language teachers and digital literacy: Assessing viewing and representing as language skills (Published)

This study focused on an assessment of the viewing and representing skills of English language teachers in public and private secondary schools in Ekiti state. This study adopted the descriptive research of the survey type. A multistage procedure was used in randomly selecting four hundred and eighty English language teachers from thirty public secondary schools and thirty private secondary schools in Ekiti state. The research instrument was a self-structured questionnaire. The data collected were analysed using weighted mean, percentages, frequency counts and standard deviation. Results obtained revealed that English language teachers’ basic knowledge in viewing and representing icons without text labels were moderately low with the mean scores of 1.9 and 2.0 respectively.  A weighted mean of 2.50 revealed an average level of teachers’ ability in deciphering icons with text labels.  Mean scores of 1.9 and 1.8 were adjudged as very low for teacher’s ability in viewing and representing Google Meet icons respectively.

Keywords: Digital Literacy, Language Teachers, Skills, representing, viewing

Perceptions of Tamale Technical University Hospitality and Tourism Lecturers on Graduates Employability (Published)

Hospitality and Tourism (HT) higher education is a recent occurrence in Ghana. Issues of disparity in instruction and curriculum contents create problems for graduate’s employability. The industry demands graduates with employable skills and competencies, which lacks hospitality and tourism management students of higher learning put continuous pressure on educators. And can be corrected through higher education curriculum design. The study examines lecturers’ insights regarding students’ potential employability in HT sectors concerning course content, structure, relevance, adequacy and quality of lectures delivered. The results revealed that lecturers’ perceptions of skills and competencies developed by the graduate programme in Hospitality and tourism management (HTM) is inadequate and lacks employable skills. Lack of knowledge and understanding amongst students and lecturers of the hospitality and Tourism industry required skills such as generic hospitality required skills (interpersonal skills, communication skills, work ethics, professionalism, and emotional intelligence). The study adopted a qualitative approach. An in-depth semi-structured interview involving all 40 lecturers of the Department of Hospitality and Tourism of Tamale Technical University The study recommends lecturers and students having industry experience to be abreast with the industry’s needs for graduate’s employability.

Keywords: Competencies, Employability, Skills, hospitality and tourism

Elements and Principles of Design in Garment Production among Small Scale Producers of Berekum Municipal in Ghana (Published)

The study was to investigate whether small scale garment producers in Berekum apply the elements and principles of design in garment manufacturing (since some produced garments had colours not well blended, fabric with lines not meeting at seam joints, motifs not well arranged, and some garment styles not looking good on clients’ figures because their figure types were not considered before designing) and to unearth strategies to improve their clothing designing skills to meet current market standards. The study used a descriptive survey research design. The snow ball and convenience sampling techniques in selecting one hundred small scale garment producers for the study. The main instrument was a questionnaire and observation checklist, analysed to generate frequencies, percentages and mean, and presented in tables. It was revealed that the garment producers had a fair knowledge in the application of the elements and principles of design and about 85% appreciated their importance. However, they failed to practice because of Clients’ demand. Findings from workshop organized revealed the need for using smart phones and has aided in the provision of an easy access to information which has sort to promote the use of data and real-world applications to enhance their productivity. The respondents therefore suggested that frequent in- service training and workshops should be organized for them by their Tailors and Dressmakers Association and Ghana National Association of Tailors and Dressmakers (GNATD) in order to meet current market demands and competition since majority of them went through apprenticeship training where there was no standard syllabus for them to learn from.

Keywords: Design, Knowledge, Skills, competency, elements and principles of design, garment

Assessment of digital literacy skills of 21st century librarians in private university libraries in Anambra state (Published)

The purpose of this study was to assess digital literacy skills of 21st century librarians in private university libraries in Anambra State. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. The area of the study was Anambra State located in the South East Geopolitical Region of Nigeria. The population of the study comprised all the 23 practicing librarians in the three private university libraries in Anambra State. The entire population was used because it was small and manageable. The questionnaire was the research instruments used for data collection. The instrument was validated by two experts from Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu University library. Data collected was analyzed using mean scores. 2.50 was used as the benchmark. The major findings of the study includes that academic librarians in private universities in Anambra State possess digital literacy skills, the librarians sponsor themselves to training on digital literacy, they attend trainings twice a year and power failure and poor internet are the challenges librarians in private universities in Anambra State face. Based on the findings, the study recommends among others that academic librarians working in private universities in Anambra State should endeavor to acquire all the digital literacy skills required for perfect service delivery; the management of private university libraries in Anambra State should provide financial sponsorship to the academic librarians for digital literacy skill acquisition and professional development in general; librarians should attend trainings on digital literacy skills more often, standby power generating source and strong internet bandwidth should be provided for the libraries.

Keywords: Digital Literacy, Librarians, Library, Skills, digital resources

The impact of COVID-19 on Economy and Employment – Main highlights on worldwide trends (Published)

The present paper discusses the economic features of the current Covid-19 outbreak and its relation to labor markets and new skills in demand. It mainly focuses in analysing the recent global trends in affected sectors, examines the current unemployment issues while deepens in the kind of new skills and soft skills in demand that are necessary for an easier transition to the new Covid-19 way of life.

Keywords: COVID-19, Economy, Employment, Skills, coronavirus, labor markets, pandemic

Effect of Public-Private Partnerships on Revamping Technical Vocational Education and Training in Kenya: A Case of Kenya Association of Manufacturers (KAM) and Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) Partnership (Published)

Lack of financial and managerial capacity impedes many governments’ ability to meet obligations in regard to the national educational systems. In order to make meaningful improvements in education, governments may have to consider alternative methods such as public – private partnerships so as to meet their commitments to education. Establishing PPP with the private sector especially corporations who possess valuable financial and material resources and expertise can assist governments to expand and improve the quality of education services leading to achievement of education for all (EFA) goals. This paper aims at establishing the effect of Public-Private Partnerships on revamping Technical Vocational Education and Training in Kenya focusing on a case of KAM and GIZ Partnership. The study sought to establish how employment opportunities through KAM and GIZ Partnerships have revamped Technical Vocational Education and Training in Kenya and to assess the financial assistance from KAM and GIZ Partnerships on revamping TVET in Kenya. The paper was centered on Classical Liberal Theory. The study targeted a population of 882 students and staff of TVETs in Nairobi County. The paper used stratified random sampling to select a sample of 268 respondents who received the questionnaires. Self-administered questionnaires and interview guides were used for collection of primary data. The questionnaires were administered using the drop and pick later method in order to allow the respondents have enough time for responding adequately to the questions. SPSS Version 25.0 was used for data analysis. The paper used descriptive statistics since it enabled the researcher describe meaningfully the score or measurement distribution by using a few indices. Conceptual content analysis was used in the analysis of the qualitative data from the open-ended questions. The study concluded that Public-Private Partnerships positively and significantly revamps TVET in Kenya. The Kenya government should develop a public-private partnership policy framework especially in education to guide corporate/business organizations involvement.


Keywords: Education, Skills, Technical, Training, Vocational, private partnerships, public

Enhancing Entrepreneurial Education Skills in Electrical Installation for Sustainable Economic Development (Published)

The Paper discussed the enhancement of entrepreneurial education skills in Electrical installation for sustainable economic development. School leavers from various institutions face skill opportunities of securing employment including those that studied electrical installation maintenance work. Entrepreneurial education was discussed as a suiting solution that would enable the graduates learn skills that would make them survive by establishing electrical installation related enterprises for sustainable economic development. Some factors that would promote entrepreneurship education include adequate provision of fund to establish entrepreneurial education system, revitalization of electricity supplies and expansion of educational facilities for entrepreneurial development. Entrepreneurial competences identified for sustainable economic development among Electrical Installation graduates include managerial, accounting, marketing and competitive skills. The paper also identified concrete reasons for entrepreneurial education to include provision of necessary skills, ability of students to transit from school to work among others. When entrepreneurial education is enhanced, sustainable economic development will be realized.


Keywords: Economic Development, Education, Electrical Installation, Skills, entrepreneurial education

A way to analyse the tenets of English Language in terms of learning and teaching and process of developing skills in English Language to the non- native speakers (Published)

Language is   just like an effluent   river. It  is  a  medium  of   communication   which  needs  to  have   some   approaches   in  both  learning    and   teaching  procedure  , which   are  the  combination  of   so  many   components   and   factors.  Actually, a language   comes   through   evolution   which   is   adapted   through   different    sorts   of   changes   and   changeling   over   the   years.  After   coming   into  certain  structure,   language   may   be  a  bit   stable   and  then , the  way   of   learning  and  teaching   becomes  volatile    due  the   cultural    variation ,  its   wide   use   and  different    usage   as  a  tool   of  connecting   language   and   increasing   popularity   across  the   world . Likewise ,  English   language    has  come   across  a  long  way   through   its  wide  use  and  acceptance  around  the   world . But  the   acquisition  of   Language  to  the  non  -native  English  speaking   is   variable   due  to  level   of   accomplishment   in  the  aforesaid  language. In this  article   a  focus  is given  on  the  utility  and  efficacy  of  approaches ,  methods    and   techniques   in  accordance   with   decisive  factors  under  the  aegis  of   ambience  to improve   the   skills  in   English   language. The  article   also  describes  some  internal   linguistic   ways   and   means  to  learn  a  language  with  the  function  of   the  intrinsic  and  extrinsic   faculties   which   is  to  be  experimented  and   justified  to  have  a  greater   accomplishment   in  the  projected  language

Keywords: Approaches, Language, Learning, Skills, Teaching, Theories

Performance-Based Education (PBE) Predicated on Outcomes, Skills and Competence against Current Certificate Based Qualification (Published)

The traditional methods of teaching have become obsolete and ineffective in preparing students for the 21st century industrialized and technologically-based job market. The stand and deliver lecture methods of more than two decades ago do not provide students with the learning opportunities to acquire critical competences and skills to develop their own knowledge and problem-solve in real life situations (Allais, 2007; Donnelly,(2007). In addition to being spoon-fed facts out of texts, students are not given opportunities to develop appropriate independent learning as well as social skills such as cooperative and collaborative learning, negotiating skills, speaking and listening skills and being open to divergent perspectives on issues.  This paper uses qualitative research method, a social justice inquiry approach from the critical social science tradition (Denzin & Lincoln; 2011) to analyse existing literature in areas of performance-based education to compare learning outcomes and competencies against current traditional passive certificate-based qualification. It is hoped that the outcome of this effort will help students develop skills that would assist them to think independently, work cooperatively with their peers while deepening their knowledge base.

Keywords: Competence, Outcome-Based Learning (OBL), Performance-Based Education (PBE), Skills, certificate-based qualifications, educational outcomes

Influence of Social Media on Communication Skills and Academic Performance of Business Education Students in Colleges of Education in Southwest, Nigeria (Published)

The study assessed the influence of social media on communication skill acquisition and academic performance of business education students. The study had two specific purposes, three research questions and two hypotheses. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. The population consisted of 461 respondents. A structured questionnaire tagged Influence of Social Media on Communication Skills and Academic Performance Questionnaire (ISMCSAPQ) was used to collect data from the respondents. The instrument was subjected to face and content validation by three experts with a Cronbach reliability coefficient of 0.87. Mean and standard deviation were used to analyse the data to answer the research questions while linear regression statistic was used to test the hypotheses. The findings revealed among others that social media use significantly positively influence communication skills and academic performance of business education students in colleges of education. It was concluded that social media when used effectively for academic purposes is capable of improving communication skills and academic performance of Business Education students in colleges of education. The study is potentially of great significance to teachers and students, enabling them to recognize, accept and deploy social media as implements of teaching, learning and skill acquisition. It  was recommended among others that students should be encouraged to use social media to acquire necessary information while government provide conducive learning environment such as e-library for academic excellence.


Keywords: Academic, Business, Education, Media, Performance, Skills, Social, communication

The Gap between Employers and Unemployed, Challenges for Employability in Guanacaste Province of Costa Rica (Published)

The purpose of this research is to analyze the challenges for employability in Guanacaste through the discussion of variables that influence job offers and the conditions of job seekers, with a focus on the relevance of employment for economic development of the country and the relationship of higher education with obtaining employment. The methodology includes a descriptive research, with a quantitative approach, which studies guanacastecans in unemployment, applying a survey to a sample of 76 university students. The results show that people feel prepared and with the necessary competences for employment, but perceive little support from local governments, institutions and even the universities to open employment opportunities. The experience barrier is relevant, looked by employers; among the competences that increase the possibilities of employment are the soft skills, English language management, as well as the updating in technological tools. Considering conclusions, communication between universities, local governments and other institutions should improve with business sectors, to generate a clear picture and increase employment options. Together with efforts such as more job fairs and intermediation offices, the unemployed will have a link to find employment and employers can have a clear profile of the people who seek a job. In short, the challenges are diverse and requires efforts from various parties, from the unemployed who must develop adequate skills, to employers who value human talent in Guanacaste.

Keywords: Economic Development, Education, Employability, Skills, Unemployment

An Appraisal of the Development and Functioning Of Vocational Education and Training in Nigeria (Published)

Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) programmes in Nigeria is yet to be understood by the members of the society and that accounts for their negative attitude of relegating it to the background despite its potentials and undeniable evidence of its’ products and services. The programmes are in different categories and levels but are characterized by the practical components which cut across all the different levels. The historical research method was adopted for the study using primary and secondary data. The study reveals that technical vocational education and training programmes have been in vogue from the pre-colonial era to date. It was the main training programmes available before the advent of colonialism and introduction of western education in Nigeria. TVET programmes in Nigeria is not meeting the needs of the society and the paper advanced what should be done to bridge the need gap as the way forward. 

Keywords: Industries, Skills, TVET, trainees, trainers

Integrating English Language Skills at Under-Graduation Level through Principled Eclecticism Method (Published)

According to academic research, linguists have demonstrated that there is not one single best method for everyone in all contexts, and that no single teaching method is good or bad or inherently superior to the others.  The ground reality is that it is not always possible and appropriate to apply the same pedagogy to all learners, who have different objectives, environments and learning needs like Jazan University, Saudi Arabia.  The modern teacher, in fact needs to use a variety of methodologies and approaches, choosing techniques from each method that he considers more effective and applies them according to learning context and objectives.  A professional EFL teacher follows what is described as the Principled Eclecticism approach, where students are also encouraged to be autonomous in their learning.  The teacher can integrate and develop all four skills of English, i.e. listening, speaking, reading and writing.  English language learners should not expect the teacher to deliver everything to them ready-made but should realize their own sense of responsibility with self-motivation, self-direction and spirit of self-learning English as a second language through the techniques that suits to their needs of learning the target language.  The present critical situation of teaching-learning English in Jazan University has been interrogated through questionnaire and opinionnaire developed for the teachers and the students for valid and reliable data.

Keywords: Integration, Needs, Pedagogy, Skills, learner, principled-eclectic-approach

Competency-Based Curriculum: A Framework for Bridging the Gap in Teaching, Assessment and the World of Work (Published)

In this era of creative and flexible learning, most vocational education and training (VET) in developing countries still adopt a passive approach to learning where students’ success in examination is based on their ability to reproduce a credible portion of their notes from memory. Although the curricula and teaching methods have remained largely unchanged in developing countries over the years, employers are increasingly demanding technical competencies, analytical thinking, communication and entrepreneurial skills. Essentially, the study seeks to find out how curriculum development processes of CBT provides framework for aligning teaching and learning processes to equip trainees with requisite skills and competencies to perform in the world of work. The study examines relevant literature and policy papers from several databases together with key stakeholder consultations to obtain insights into CBT curriculum development processes, underlying assumptions, philosophies, linkages with Bloom taxonomy of educational objectives, assessment practices and outcomes and their eventual effects on the achievement of relevant skills and competencies required to perform professional tasks. The study shows that although mastery of a job-specific task is important, it does not ensure a competent employee particularly in the context of rapid pace of technological change and high labour mobility. Moreover, when outcomes of learning are tied to descriptions of work, or specific workplace activity, it emphasises tradition and limits transfer of skills and labour mobility, leaving graduates largely for routine and restricted tasks which may not guarantee employability (Nuffield Review, 2008). Prospective employees need to acquire a broader range of soft skills, professional competencies and attitudes to continually adapt and transfer skills and knowledge in different contexts.  It is imperative for industry to engage in innovative forms of collaboration to achieve industry–demand driven form of training and smooth transition of students from school to work. Feedback from assessment must focus on task-oriented information and corrective advice to build students’ self-esteem to self-regulate their learning towards the achievement of learning goals.

Keywords: Assessment, Competency-Based, Curriculum, Skills, Workplace

English Teachers’ Skills Using Play in Teaching English to Initial Grades of Primary Education Level Throughout Irbid First Education Directorate, From Teachers’ Viewpoint in Jordan (Published)

: The study aimed to discover to what level English teachers enjoyed using play to teach skills (choice of game skill, classroom control efficiency, game execution skill, evaluation skill) in teaching English to initial grades of the primary education level throughout Irbid First Education Directorate, from teachers’ viewpoint. The study population consisted of 145 teachers in initial grades of primary education schools throughout Irbid First Education Directorate schools for the academic year 2017. The study sample was the whole population for results to be generalized to teachers of other subjects, 145 questionnaires were distributed with 123 returned and 3 disqualified leaving 120 completed questionnaire responses for analysis. The study found that the overall skill of using play in teaching English was of a medium level. However, choice of game skill and evaluation skill were a medium level, classroom control efficiency a low level, game execution skill was of a high level.

Keywords: English Language Teachers, First primary level, Irbid First Directorate., Play, Skills

The Contribution of in-Company Training to Skills Improvement and Human Resources Development (Published)

The following research comes to explore the importance and contribution of in-company training human resources to the business. The literature review shows that education, as a tool for shaping attitudes and attitudes and developing new skills, can play a key role in improving staff skills and thus influencing the overall growth and competitiveness of an enterprise. In the present study, a survey of mixed methods was conducted with quantitative (questionnaire) and qualitative (interview) data and with sample employees from the Greek construction company “Avax”. Answers confirm that education provides employees with all the skills and support they need in order to be more efficient and thus increase their competitiveness and productivity. This research adds further data to the area of in-company education and training, since this kind of research in Greece is limited. In addition the impact of the economic crisis and the change in the culture of businesses trying to survive through training and investing in human resources is highlighted.

Keywords: Adult Education, Educational Needs, Human Resources, In-Company Training, Skills

A Comparative Study of the Role of Men and Women in Cooperative Development in Udi Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria (Published)

The actualization of Cooperatives development is one of the most common traits of the emerging economies. Government at all levels in different occasions has adopted one developmental strategy or the other, all aimed to successfully install cooperative development. This study had the objective of assessing the role of men and women in cooperative development in Udi Local Government Area of Enugu State in Nigeria. The study employed primary sources of data. The primary data were collected through questionnaires using descriptive statistics. The results of the study indicated that the male cooperators contribute more to cooperative development than their female counterparts. The study concludes that cooperative societies in Udi should be properly and effectively managed. It was also recommended that cooperative societies should endeavour to improve their management skills, balance gender inequality and enhance the personal welfare of members so as to facilitate cooperative development in Udi Local Government Area.

Keywords: Cooperatives, Descriptive, Development, Gender Inequality, Government, Skills