Tag Archives: Skills

A way to analyse the tenets of English Language in terms of learning and teaching and process of developing skills in English Language to the non- native speakers (Published)

Language is   just like an effluent   river. It  is  a  medium  of   communication   which  needs  to  have   some   approaches   in  both  learning    and   teaching  procedure  , which   are  the  combination  of   so  many   components   and   factors.  Actually, a language   comes   through   evolution   which   is   adapted   through   different    sorts   of   changes   and   changeling   over   the   years.  After   coming   into  certain  structure,   language   may   be  a  bit   stable   and  then , the  way   of   learning  and  teaching   becomes  volatile    due  the   cultural    variation ,  its   wide   use   and  different    usage   as  a  tool   of  connecting   language   and   increasing   popularity   across  the   world . Likewise ,  English   language    has  come   across  a  long  way   through   its  wide  use  and  acceptance  around  the   world . But  the   acquisition  of   Language  to  the  non  -native  English  speaking   is   variable   due  to  level   of   accomplishment   in  the  aforesaid  language. In this  article   a  focus  is given  on  the  utility  and  efficacy  of  approaches ,  methods    and   techniques   in  accordance   with   decisive  factors  under  the  aegis  of   ambience  to improve   the   skills  in   English   language. The  article   also  describes  some  internal   linguistic   ways   and   means  to  learn  a  language  with  the  function  of   the  intrinsic  and  extrinsic   faculties   which   is  to  be  experimented  and   justified  to  have  a  greater   accomplishment   in  the  projected  language

Keywords: Approaches, Language, Learning, Skills, Teaching, Theories

Performance-Based Education (PBE) Predicated on Outcomes, Skills and Competence against Current Certificate Based Qualification (Published)

The traditional methods of teaching have become obsolete and ineffective in preparing students for the 21st century industrialized and technologically-based job market. The stand and deliver lecture methods of more than two decades ago do not provide students with the learning opportunities to acquire critical competences and skills to develop their own knowledge and problem-solve in real life situations (Allais, 2007; Donnelly,(2007). In addition to being spoon-fed facts out of texts, students are not given opportunities to develop appropriate independent learning as well as social skills such as cooperative and collaborative learning, negotiating skills, speaking and listening skills and being open to divergent perspectives on issues.  This paper uses qualitative research method, a social justice inquiry approach from the critical social science tradition (Denzin & Lincoln; 2011) to analyse existing literature in areas of performance-based education to compare learning outcomes and competencies against current traditional passive certificate-based qualification. It is hoped that the outcome of this effort will help students develop skills that would assist them to think independently, work cooperatively with their peers while deepening their knowledge base.

Keywords: Competence, Outcome-Based Learning (OBL), Performance-Based Education (PBE), Skills, certificate-based qualifications, educational outcomes

Influence of Social Media on Communication Skills and Academic Performance of Business Education Students in Colleges of Education in Southwest, Nigeria (Published)

The study assessed the influence of social media on communication skill acquisition and academic performance of business education students. The study had two specific purposes, three research questions and two hypotheses. Descriptive survey design was adopted for the study. The population consisted of 461 respondents. A structured questionnaire tagged Influence of Social Media on Communication Skills and Academic Performance Questionnaire (ISMCSAPQ) was used to collect data from the respondents. The instrument was subjected to face and content validation by three experts with a Cronbach reliability coefficient of 0.87. Mean and standard deviation were used to analyse the data to answer the research questions while linear regression statistic was used to test the hypotheses. The findings revealed among others that social media use significantly positively influence communication skills and academic performance of business education students in colleges of education. It was concluded that social media when used effectively for academic purposes is capable of improving communication skills and academic performance of Business Education students in colleges of education. The study is potentially of great significance to teachers and students, enabling them to recognize, accept and deploy social media as implements of teaching, learning and skill acquisition. It  was recommended among others that students should be encouraged to use social media to acquire necessary information while government provide conducive learning environment such as e-library for academic excellence.

 

Keywords: Academic, Business, Education, Media, Performance, Skills, Social, communication

The Gap between Employers and Unemployed, Challenges for Employability in Guanacaste Province of Costa Rica (Published)

The purpose of this research is to analyze the challenges for employability in Guanacaste through the discussion of variables that influence job offers and the conditions of job seekers, with a focus on the relevance of employment for economic development of the country and the relationship of higher education with obtaining employment. The methodology includes a descriptive research, with a quantitative approach, which studies guanacastecans in unemployment, applying a survey to a sample of 76 university students. The results show that people feel prepared and with the necessary competences for employment, but perceive little support from local governments, institutions and even the universities to open employment opportunities. The experience barrier is relevant, looked by employers; among the competences that increase the possibilities of employment are the soft skills, English language management, as well as the updating in technological tools. Considering conclusions, communication between universities, local governments and other institutions should improve with business sectors, to generate a clear picture and increase employment options. Together with efforts such as more job fairs and intermediation offices, the unemployed will have a link to find employment and employers can have a clear profile of the people who seek a job. In short, the challenges are diverse and requires efforts from various parties, from the unemployed who must develop adequate skills, to employers who value human talent in Guanacaste.

Keywords: Economic Development, Education, Employability, Skills, Unemployment

An Appraisal of the Development and Functioning Of Vocational Education and Training in Nigeria (Published)

Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) programmes in Nigeria is yet to be understood by the members of the society and that accounts for their negative attitude of relegating it to the background despite its potentials and undeniable evidence of its’ products and services. The programmes are in different categories and levels but are characterized by the practical components which cut across all the different levels. The historical research method was adopted for the study using primary and secondary data. The study reveals that technical vocational education and training programmes have been in vogue from the pre-colonial era to date. It was the main training programmes available before the advent of colonialism and introduction of western education in Nigeria. TVET programmes in Nigeria is not meeting the needs of the society and the paper advanced what should be done to bridge the need gap as the way forward. 

Keywords: Industries, Skills, TVET, trainees, trainers

Integrating English Language Skills at Under-Graduation Level through Principled Eclecticism Method (Published)

According to academic research, linguists have demonstrated that there is not one single best method for everyone in all contexts, and that no single teaching method is good or bad or inherently superior to the others.  The ground reality is that it is not always possible and appropriate to apply the same pedagogy to all learners, who have different objectives, environments and learning needs like Jazan University, Saudi Arabia.  The modern teacher, in fact needs to use a variety of methodologies and approaches, choosing techniques from each method that he considers more effective and applies them according to learning context and objectives.  A professional EFL teacher follows what is described as the Principled Eclecticism approach, where students are also encouraged to be autonomous in their learning.  The teacher can integrate and develop all four skills of English, i.e. listening, speaking, reading and writing.  English language learners should not expect the teacher to deliver everything to them ready-made but should realize their own sense of responsibility with self-motivation, self-direction and spirit of self-learning English as a second language through the techniques that suits to their needs of learning the target language.  The present critical situation of teaching-learning English in Jazan University has been interrogated through questionnaire and opinionnaire developed for the teachers and the students for valid and reliable data.

Keywords: Integration, Needs, Pedagogy, Skills, learner, principled-eclectic-approach

Competency-Based Curriculum: A Framework for Bridging the Gap in Teaching, Assessment and the World of Work (Published)

In this era of creative and flexible learning, most vocational education and training (VET) in developing countries still adopt a passive approach to learning where students’ success in examination is based on their ability to reproduce a credible portion of their notes from memory. Although the curricula and teaching methods have remained largely unchanged in developing countries over the years, employers are increasingly demanding technical competencies, analytical thinking, communication and entrepreneurial skills. Essentially, the study seeks to find out how curriculum development processes of CBT provides framework for aligning teaching and learning processes to equip trainees with requisite skills and competencies to perform in the world of work. The study examines relevant literature and policy papers from several databases together with key stakeholder consultations to obtain insights into CBT curriculum development processes, underlying assumptions, philosophies, linkages with Bloom taxonomy of educational objectives, assessment practices and outcomes and their eventual effects on the achievement of relevant skills and competencies required to perform professional tasks. The study shows that although mastery of a job-specific task is important, it does not ensure a competent employee particularly in the context of rapid pace of technological change and high labour mobility. Moreover, when outcomes of learning are tied to descriptions of work, or specific workplace activity, it emphasises tradition and limits transfer of skills and labour mobility, leaving graduates largely for routine and restricted tasks which may not guarantee employability (Nuffield Review, 2008). Prospective employees need to acquire a broader range of soft skills, professional competencies and attitudes to continually adapt and transfer skills and knowledge in different contexts.  It is imperative for industry to engage in innovative forms of collaboration to achieve industry–demand driven form of training and smooth transition of students from school to work. Feedback from assessment must focus on task-oriented information and corrective advice to build students’ self-esteem to self-regulate their learning towards the achievement of learning goals.

Keywords: Assessment, Competency-Based, Curriculum, Skills, Workplace

English Teachers’ Skills Using Play in Teaching English to Initial Grades of Primary Education Level Throughout Irbid First Education Directorate, From Teachers’ Viewpoint in Jordan (Published)

: The study aimed to discover to what level English teachers enjoyed using play to teach skills (choice of game skill, classroom control efficiency, game execution skill, evaluation skill) in teaching English to initial grades of the primary education level throughout Irbid First Education Directorate, from teachers’ viewpoint. The study population consisted of 145 teachers in initial grades of primary education schools throughout Irbid First Education Directorate schools for the academic year 2017. The study sample was the whole population for results to be generalized to teachers of other subjects, 145 questionnaires were distributed with 123 returned and 3 disqualified leaving 120 completed questionnaire responses for analysis. The study found that the overall skill of using play in teaching English was of a medium level. However, choice of game skill and evaluation skill were a medium level, classroom control efficiency a low level, game execution skill was of a high level.

Keywords: English Language Teachers, First primary level, Irbid First Directorate., Play, Skills

The Contribution of in-Company Training to Skills Improvement and Human Resources Development (Published)

The following research comes to explore the importance and contribution of in-company training human resources to the business. The literature review shows that education, as a tool for shaping attitudes and attitudes and developing new skills, can play a key role in improving staff skills and thus influencing the overall growth and competitiveness of an enterprise. In the present study, a survey of mixed methods was conducted with quantitative (questionnaire) and qualitative (interview) data and with sample employees from the Greek construction company “Avax”. Answers confirm that education provides employees with all the skills and support they need in order to be more efficient and thus increase their competitiveness and productivity. This research adds further data to the area of in-company education and training, since this kind of research in Greece is limited. In addition the impact of the economic crisis and the change in the culture of businesses trying to survive through training and investing in human resources is highlighted.

Keywords: Adult Education, Educational Needs, Human Resources, In-Company Training, Skills

A Comparative Study of the Role of Men and Women in Cooperative Development in Udi Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria (Published)

The actualization of Cooperatives development is one of the most common traits of the emerging economies. Government at all levels in different occasions has adopted one developmental strategy or the other, all aimed to successfully install cooperative development. This study had the objective of assessing the role of men and women in cooperative development in Udi Local Government Area of Enugu State in Nigeria. The study employed primary sources of data. The primary data were collected through questionnaires using descriptive statistics. The results of the study indicated that the male cooperators contribute more to cooperative development than their female counterparts. The study concludes that cooperative societies in Udi should be properly and effectively managed. It was also recommended that cooperative societies should endeavour to improve their management skills, balance gender inequality and enhance the personal welfare of members so as to facilitate cooperative development in Udi Local Government Area.

Keywords: Cooperatives, Descriptive, Development, Gender Inequality, Government, Skills

Occupational and Professional Development: OECD Policy Analysis on Skills (Published)

The OECD has a long history of engagement with major United Nations (UN) processes on human development and well-being. Through its policies and important official texts, it has contributed to shaping the framework of international and national policies regarding people’s evolution and development. These policies are of great importance given that the working environment is becoming more and more global, dynamic, multidimensional and complex. Consequently, the effectiveness of human resources is a matter of major importance, leading most organizations and enterprises to pursue employee’s professional development and the comprehensive improvement of their skills. This study, through the qualitative analysis of the OECD’s text “OECD SKILLS OUTLOOK 2017: SKILLS AND GLOBAL VALUE CHAINS” comes to examine the types of skills proposed by the OECD and their characteristics, the benefits of developing and cultivating these skills, the ways they are planned and whether their planning is influenced by the spirit of corresponding international and European policies. The analysis of the text shows that there is a strong demand for mixed skills. In addition it seems that the design and development of the right and appropriate skills is a complex and multidimensional issue, as several agents are called upon to work together and contribute to both international and national levels. Regarding the benefits, one of great importance is that right skills help countries integrate into global markets and specialize in the most technologically advanced industries. Besides they help individuals face the potential of unemployment, job losses and lower job quality. 

Keywords: Education Policies, OECD, Professional Development, Skills

4th Industrial Revolution: The Challenge of Changing Human Resources Skills (Published)

This paper comes to examine the intense reflection that arises around the issue of the fourth industrial revolution and the subsequent rapid changes. Changes that affect all areas of human existence, especially labour, drastically. Already from the beginning of the 21st century, international organizations (UN, UNESCO, OECD) are also keen to increase employability and develop relevant skills that can protect it.

Keywords: 4rth Industrial Revolution, Changes, Employability, Skills

Contemporary Working Dilemmas and European Policies for Transformation (Published)

The contemporary societal characteristics, the rapid development of technology, the intense demographic changes, the high and persistent unemployment rates have led to major changes in the workplace. More and more professional groups are becoming vulnerable and they need to redefine their work profile and strengthen it with skills that will let them respond to the mental, physical and emotional demands of the new labor market. In such a context, the training and education of potential professionals becomes a matter of major importance and a reference point for the policies of international organizations. The European Commission has drafted texts which aim to increase the employability of individuals. One recent text is that of “A New Skills Agenda for Europe”, which was adopted by the Commission on 10 June 2016. Following the quantitative methodology and in particular the content analysis of the text we examine the way it can be achieved. The categories used for the analysis of the text come from the transformative learning theory of Mezirow and in particular the ten stages of stochastic processing. The results of this study show that the aim of this text seems to be the learning transformation of employees in order to become more employable.

Keywords: Dilemma, Employability, European Policies, Skills, Transformative Learning

Competency-Based Curriculum: A Framework for Bridging the Gap in Teaching, Assessment and the World of Work (Published)

In this era of creative and flexible learning, most vocational education and training (VET) in developing countries still adopt a passive approach to learning where students’ success in examination is based on their ability to reproduce a credible portion of their notes from memory. Although the curricula and teaching methods have remained largely unchanged in developing countries over the years, employers are increasingly demanding technical competencies, analytical thinking, communication and entrepreneurial skills. Essentially, the study seeks to find out how curriculum development processes of CBT provides framework for aligning teaching and learning processes to equip trainees with requisite skills and competencies to perform in the world of work. The study examines relevant literature and policy papers from several databases together with key stakeholder consultations to obtain insights into CBT curriculum development processes, underlying assumptions, philosophies, linkages with Bloom taxonomy of educational objectives, assessment practices and outcomes and their eventual effects on the achievement of relevant skills and competencies required to perform professional tasks. The study shows that although mastery of a job-specific task is important, it does not ensure a competent employee particularly in the context of rapid pace of technological change and high labour mobility. Moreover, when outcomes of learning are tied to descriptions of work, or specific workplace activity, it emphasises tradition and limits transfer of skills and labour mobility, leaving graduates largely for routine and restricted tasks which may not guarantee employability (Nuffield Review, 2008). Prospective employees need to acquire a broader range of soft skills, professional competencies and attitudes to continually adapt and transfer skills and knowledge in different contexts.  It is imperative for industry to engage in innovative forms of collaboration to achieve industry–demand driven form of training and smooth transition of students from school to work. Feedback from assessment must focus on task-oriented information and corrective advice to build students’ self-esteem to self-regulate their learning towards the achievement of learning goals.

Keywords: Assessment, Competency-Based, Curriculum, Skills, Workplace

Emotional Empowerment of Human Capital through Adult Learning Pathways (Published)

The Sustainable Development Goals Program was adopted by the United Nations in September 2015 and is an evolution of the Millennium Development Goals Program (2000-2015). Its main axes are economy, society and the environment, with an emphasis on education and training for professionals, which are considered to be fundamental foundations of economic and social development. UNESCO is called upon to play an important role in implementing the Agenda, as it has both the right experience and extensive diplomatic networks. To this end, it has drafted official texts on the achievement of the Agenda 2030 objectives. Its recent text, “Third World Report on Adult Learning and Adult Education” (GRALE III), presents the results of an international research involving 139 UNESCO member countries on the impact of Learning and Adult Education on Health, Prosperity, Employment and the Labour Market, Social, Political and Community Life. Adults need to redefine their work profile and strengthen it with the right skills that will let them respond to the mental, physical and emotional demands of the new labour market. Which are though the right skills? Since specialized skills seem not to be adequate, emphasis has been lately put on emotional competence, which may contribute to the creation of a healthy working environment (Goleman, 1998). This study, through the qualitative analysis of the above-mentioned text, tries to capture and investigate whether there are references to skills related to the field of emotional intelligence in its content. The analysis of the text shows that references are made to the categories of interpersonal relations management, self-management, self –awareness and self-confidence. In particular, there is a strong need for policy makers of adult education to help learners develop communication, cooperation and tolerance, face difficulties, improve this lives, connect emotionally with others, join in community, sustain social connections.

Keywords: Adult Learning, Education, Emotional Intelligence, Empowerment, Skills, UNESCO

Skills and Sentimental Intelligence: A New Dimension in Employability (Published)

In a dynamic, multidimensional and more operational environment, the effectiveness of human resources is a matter of major importance, leading most organizations and enterprises to pursue total quality in all their activities (Hofstede, 1990). The quality can be ensured through the comprehensive improvement of employee skills, international alliances, the introduction and support of innovations, the lifelong education and training of human resources. International organizations, in a context of global co-operation and synergy, are called upon to play an important role in this direction, as they have both the appropriate experience and extensive diplomatic networks. To that end, important official texts have been drawn up, of which a constant point of reference is the need to acquire proper and appropriate skills. Which are though the right skills? Since specialized skills seem not to be adequate, emphasis has been lately put on emotional competence, which may contribute to the creation of a healthy working environment (Goleman, 1998). This study, through the qualitative analysis of the European Commission’s text “Communication: A new skills agenda for Europe”, tries to capture and investigate whether there are references to skills related to the field of emotional intelligence in its content. The analysis of the text shows that references are made mainly to the categories of interpersonal relations management and self-management. In particular, there is a strong need for policy makers to develop communication, facilitate change, enhance the development of others, teamwork, co-operation and adaptation to continuously changing environments.

Keywords: Employability, European Union., Sentimental Intelligence, Skills

Skills: A Pathway to Employability and Prosperity. European Commission Policies (Published)

The contemporary societal characteristics, the rapid technological developments, the increase in age limits, the strong demographic changes, the high rates of unemployment have led to major changes in the workplace. There is a strong demand for national and international policies, which aim at the development of employability and prosperity of citizens. In a context of global co-operation and coalition, international organizations, such as the United Nations Organization, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and the European Union (EU) Institutions, are called upon to play an important role in the development of prosperity, social cohesion and the economy of the countries, given that they have both the appropriate experience and the extensive diplomatic networks. In such a context, a great number of significant official texts have been drafted. Texts which provide policy guidance to member states in order to achieve growth and prosperity. This study, through the qualitative analysis of the European Commission’s text “Communication: A new skills agenda for Europe”, tries to capture and investigate the way employability can be protected and maintained. The analysis shows that a basic dimension of employability concerns the improvement and development of a skillset which people need to obtain in order to get and keep employed. These skills are planned and supported by corresponding policies and they are also differentiated according to target populations.

Keywords: Employability, Prosperity, Skills, policies

Skills in Basic Science and Technology for Local Technology and Entrepreneurship in Nigeria (Published)

With the broad search for skills to drive the home grown local technology in developing countries like Nigeria, Nigerian Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC) in the new Curriculum for Basic Science and Technology, encourages teachers to lead their students to identify entrepreneurial skills in Basic Sciences. This study is one of the efforts to determine such skills in Basic Sciences and Technology for Local technology and entrepreneurship. The research took place in one of the biggest cities in a flourishing State in Nigeria with 120 students (30 each), randomly selected from four secondary schools. The validated prime instrument for the descriptive survey design was questionnaire. The data was analyzed using inferential statistics. The researcher made recommendations that could answer the usual local and global question of “Where next is technology driving the local entrepreneurial?”

Keywords: Basic Science, Entrepreneurship, Skills, Sustainable Development, Technology, local technology

Labor Market and Development: UNESCO Research Data on Human Resource Training (Published)

The Sustainable Development Goals Program was adopted by the United Nations in September 2015 and is an evolution of the Millennium Development Goals Program (2000-2015). Its main axes are economy, society and the environment, with an emphasis on education and training for professionals, which are considered to be fundamental foundations of economic and social development. UNESCO is called upon to play an important role in implementing the Agenda, as it has both the right experience and extensive diplomatic networks. To this end, it has drafted official texts on the achievement of the Agenda 2030 objectives. Its recent text, “Third World Report on Adult Learning and Adult Education” (GRALE III), presents the results of an international research involving 139 UNESCO member countries on the impact of Learning and Adult Education on Health, Prosperity, Employment and the Labor Market, Social, Political and Community Life. This study, through the qualitative analysis of the above-mentioned text, reflects and investigates the impact of education on the labor market and the development of human resources. The thematic analysis shows that the development of the labor market and human resources is linked to the type of education and skills provided by population group, financing, strategies and policy-making.

Keywords: Education, Labor market, Policy, Skills, UNESCO

Skills, Teaching in ESL, Classroom, Discrete, Integrated (Published)

This paper reviews skills teaching in ESL classroom which can be discrete or integrated. It includes a brief history of discrete skills teaching according to different methods of English language teaching, and the shift towards integrated approach in more recent years. The researcher also analyses the classroom implications of discrete and integrated skills teaching in order to find out which one is more successful in ESL classroom. Therefore, the purpose of this article is firstly, to evaluate the methodological approaches towards skills teaching; secondly,to explore discrete skills approach in class; thirdly, to analyse integration of skills to make a learner a competent user of language; and finally, to propose the various ways of integration and recommend the teachers for the successful development of the integration of language skills

Keywords: Classroom, Discrete, Integrated, Skills, Teaching in ESL