So far, studies about silence in EFL classrooms show that there is a correlation between students’ silence and their culture (among others King, 2011; Nakane, 2016; Wilang, 2017). Focusing on whether there is a relation between EFL students’ cultural identity and silence in the classroom, this study looks at the relation between culture and silence from a different perspective. Forty-nine first-semester EFL university students who took part in this study were asked to fill out a questionnaire about (1) how they identified themselves – whether they tend to be western or eastern in their attitudes – and (2) why they tend to be silent in the EFL classrooms. Using Hofstede’s (1970) cultural dimensions and Brown & Levinson’s (1987) Management of Face Theory, we found that although 86% of the participants identified themselves as being more western, those who responded to their lecturers’ questions by silence are more motivated by eastern values. Although students’ silence was indeed related with face wants, this study shows that culture is not a factor which causes the students’ silence in the classroom.
From Silence to Story: How Discursive Functions of Silence Affect Our Reading of a Story (In Persian Literature) (Review Completed - Accepted)
This paper examines different types of ‘silence’ as meaningful absence that leaves a trace behind. This trace is meaningful due to the absence of some lines within a text. As a marker of silence, the trace is introduced in various forms. The study of meaningful silence in literature as discourse shows that this marked silence is present in any text with the aid of discursive indicators. Any text communicates meaning through combinations of words and lack thereof, i.e., silence. Silence, in fact, has an interactive role and it is also employed as a discursive technique in literature to produce a narrative and plot.
This study explores the functions of written silence in fictional world. The main questions are: what are the different types of written silence, and what discursive functions do they serve in literary narratives? We regard written silence as a marker of the intentionally disregarded signifiers. The systematic use of silence is always directed towards leaving specific effects, while also impacting the author’s style of writing. The paper delineates and analyzes this kind of silence in five Iranian short stories in terms of three types. Consequently, these types will be discussed on three axes to study the structure of narrative and the creation of the elements of a story such as complication, denouement, suspense, atmosphere and setting by means of silence. Each types of silence have its specific function in fiction.