Tag Archives: shadow education

The Impact of Shadow Education on Academic Performance of Secondary School Students In Nigeria (Published)

This paper examines the impact of shadow education on the academic performance of secondary school students in Nigeria. Indeed, thousands of the secondary school students in Nigeria attend shadow education , because they believed that shadow education is the only way to improve their academic performance and to support their mainstream education and similarly, their parents have optimistic on shadow education, because they always eager finding nearness centres or employ tutors for their children within their apartments.  Therefore, we have two types of shadow education formal and informal. Informal which takes place at home, while formal takes place within the school premises. Thus, students are lured to attend shadow education upon the level of socio- economic background of their parents neither upper class, middle class or lower class even a situation hardship economy of the country is not really barriers for them to attend  shadow education because they believed that there is more advantageous in  which they can benefits from shadow education rather  than mainstream education.Yet, shadow education creates room for proper interaction between  the teachers and students and make it easily for the students to express their views  freely without fear or panic. Similarly, it also allow the tutors to have additional incomes apart from main salary from the mainstream education, However, shadow education has different names  in Nigeria such as  prep, lesson, continuous education  and  coaching . Therefore, many parents like to send their children to standard formal education while informal  education  the tutors employ  to teach their  children  at  their apartments.

Citation: Adeniyi  Adewale  Ojo  (2022) The Impact of Shadow Education on Academic Performance of Secondary School   Students   In   Nigeria, International Journal of Education, Learning and Development, Vol. 10, No.8, pp.1-7


Keywords: Academic, Environment, Formal, Informal, Mainstream, Performance, geographical, shadow education, socio-economic background

Private Tutoring of English: Motivational Practices in the Lived Experiences of Bangladeshi Higher Secondary Students (Published)

This article aims to address one main and three sub- research questions by presenting and analyzing the findings. The article analyzed the lived experiences of eleven Bangladeshi higher secondary school students to provide insight into their thoughts, feelings, beliefs, values and assumptions of private tutoring of English (PT-E). Each participant participated in a one-to -one in-depth semi-structured interview. To justify research questions of the study, 267 significant statements (i.e., significant phrases or sentences that pertained directly to the lived experience of PT-E participants) were identified from 11 verbatim transcripts of interviewees. As of 267 significant statements, four themes are originated from the analysis of the participants’ responses to the interview questions.


Keywords: Bangladesh, Motivational Factors, higher secondary school, private tutoring of english, shadow education, supplementary tutoring