Power-Conflict of Class and Sexuality: Strindberg’s Anti-Feminist “Soul Complex” In Miss Julie (Published)
From the eve of civilization women have been suppressed and looked down upon in male-dominated society. They are not treated by men from the neutral point of view rather they are habitually considered as man’s subservient. This unethical treatment is predominantly available in this current century even. Especially the women of the third world countries are still experiencing such vulnerability and receiving unexpected death like Miss Julie, the protagonist of August Strindberg’s Miss Julie. The vulnerability of women is beyond description and it is not only restricted in the existent world but also marginalized in the literary world. This article aims at exploring how Strindberg, a nineteenth century major playwright, assesses his female characters as secondary objects. He tries to prove and blame Julie as the only character who is liable for her own follies and her downfall. The dramatist finds out the fact using “soul complex” which, in brief, is used to refer to the complexity that influences the behavior of the character. The complexity inherent in Julie also drives her to move between the ends of class and sexuality. Though such complexity works as a dominant characteristic in every character, Miss Julie is victimized of this “complex” alone. In fact, Strindberg deliberately throws her life into the sea of miseries where she becomes isolated and helpless as a result of being suppressed by the steam-roller of her own class superiority and sexual inferiority. It is the consequence of Strindberg’s anti-feminist motive which seriously affects Miss Julie and sometimes disrupts her mother. Julie also puts up with all sorts of pain which is the push-factor behind her fall, the ultimate truth of life. Unfortunately the character Jean, who plays key role behind Julie’s death, remains unpunished even without trial or receiving any negative consequence of his actions
Citation:Noni Gopal Sutradhar (2021) Power-Conflict Of Class And Sexuality: Strindberg’s Anti-Feminist “Soul Complex” In Miss Julie, European Journal of English Language and Literature Studies, Vol.9, No.7, pp.34-38
Behavioral expressions of sexuality and sexual satisfaction of heterosexual and homosexual couples (Published)
The objective of this research was to analyze the behavioral expressions of sexuality and sexual satisfaction in heterosexual and homosexual couples, for which two instruments were applied: the “Index of sexual satisfaction” (Hudson, 1989) consisting of 25 items and the “Scale for measuring attitudes towards the practice of behavioral expressions of sexuality” (Sánchez, 2009) consisting of 82 items, which was modified to consist of 5 indicators: Masochism, Voyeurism, Sadism, Fetishism and Chastity. The sample consisted of 15 homosexual couples and 15 heterosexual couples from the state of Campeche, with an age range of 20 to 25 years, with their partner having at least one year of relationship. Among the results, we found that the behavioral expressions of sexuality are related to the sexual satisfaction of heterosexual and homosexual couples. Women show greater sexual satisfaction compared to men, without showing significant differences, and the attitude with greater acceptance of couples is fetishism compared to other attitudes (masochism, voyeurism, sadism and chastity).
The African people have varying behaviors, mannerisms, beliefs, thought patterns and way of interaction and all of these differences formed their culture and impacted their way of life. However, with the coming of the Europeans of Africa came cultural infiltration, pollution as well as alteration. This paper analyses Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart from the angle of masculinity and cultural clash as brought about by Westernization. The method of investigation is analytical and descriptive, using the formalist approach: that is looking at the actions, events, sentences and interactions of the characters in order to identity and discuss how males are portrayed, paying attention to issues of cultural realism, behaviors, actions and statements of the characters. The findings of the paper confirmed that African viewpoint of masculinity and cultural tends to be opposed to that of the Europeans, as the action and behaviors appropriate to a man in each society tend to differ. This led to different clashes from religious, cultural, ideological, to social beliefs. the conclusion that cultural clashes exist in the work and contributed to the final play out of the story, where the traditional belief system had to make way for Western ones; making things fall apart. The paper reveals that the male characters have both cultural and individual masculine idiosyncrasies and that the complexities of male roles confirm the pluralistic and slippery nature of masculinity.
The objective of this research was to describe the experience of child sexual abuse in men and women and the construction of their sexual orientation. The study was qualitative with exploratory scop. The sample was selective, consisting of 6 people, a heterosexual man and a woman; a homosexual man and woman and a bisexual woman and man. A semi-structured interview was included, the following aspects of analysis: experiences before, during and after child sexual abuse; discovery of sexual orientation / preference sexual, sexual fantasies, relationship with parents, and couples. The Atlas ti software in version 7 was used for the analysis. A free coding was carried out, to later make an axial coding in which general categories were obtained that encompass several codes at the same time and that allowed us to create a network of experiences and meanings regarding the aspects of analysis. After sexual abuse, the subjects are afraid, confused and isolated. The subjects describe the insecurity of having sexual intercourse that is attributed to previous experience of sexual abuse. People who have become homosexual and bisexual mention that sexual abuse may have influenced their orientation and they mention it. One of the subjects described as homosexual is mentioned as the cost of work the expression of their sexual orientation and the rape of a man caused fear to men. Five of the six subjects’ feelings of pleasure to have been abused and at the same time present the emotions of fear, disgust and anger, which caused confusion.
Home as a Battlefield: Power and Gender in Harold Pinter’s the Collection, the Lover and Old Times (Published)
Harold Pinter has been hailed as a dramatist among the half-dozen best dramatists, able to use his considerable wit in unusual, resonant and riveting ways. The central theme of his work is one of the dominant themes of twentieth-century art: the struggle for meaning in a fragmented world. His characters are uncertain of whom or what they understand, in whom or what they believe, and who or what they are. Pinter’s characters operate by a stark ‘territorial imperative,’ a primal drive for possession. In his plays, the struggle for power is an atavistic one between male and female. Hence sexuality as a means of power and control is our priority in discussing a select set of Pinter’s playscripts. We here examine the element of sexuality in these chosen texts analysing the relationship between male and female characters, as they snipe and sling potshots across the most intimate of all battlefields: our home and castle. The texts are studied individually, in sequence, in an attempt to lay bare the technique and leverage of sexual negotiations in Pinter’s work.
Chokher Bali is an outcome of immense sensitivity on the part of the novelist, Rabindranath Tagore, who was interested in documentation of human psychology in his novels. Tagore could no longer take delight in dead metaphors of idealism, at a time when he perceived that the whole world around him was rapidly changing. Written during the phase of cultural transition, the novel presents the confusing state of slippages from moral line, which Tagore has considered more obvious than sinful. It was almost like beating the same line, if the novelists sought to preserve in their novels moral ideals and virtues in traditional style. Tagore, in Chokher Bali also, like in his other novels portrays human beings in the light of their idiosyncrasies, peculiarities, experiments and follies
SEXUAL ORIENTATION AND GENDER IDENTITY: NEGOTIATING DIVERSITIES AND INTERSECTIONS OF QUEER SPACE IN INDIAN WRITINGS (Published)
The entire systems of social categorization agree to for two sexes – male and female. But some societies explicitly articulate three sex categories, socially distinguishing hermaphrodites as a third, mixed intermediary, or alternate sex. Other societies seems to give consent to additional categories, allowing for a range of mixed, crossed, complex, or fluid identities in between male and female. Indian culture is based on the notion that there are two opposite sexes with distinct culturally approved gender characteristics. Using this binary system allows little tolerance for cultural and social variances of what is perceived to be masculine or feminine. Indian society is much more focused on sexual behaviour rather than social role choices and expectations. In Indian culture some people who are merely dissatisfied with their gender role often feel pressured to anatomically become the other sex through surgery. Some people do not believe that their gender identity corresponds to their biological sex, namely transgender people, including transsexual people and many inter-sexed individuals as well. Consequently, complications arise when society insists that an individual adopt a manner of social expression i.e. gender role which is based on sex. Sexuality, or gender identity, may be all about the cultural response to the individual. Some people may be born with confusing sexuality and they need to find the gender role that fits with their nature, and others find that the male/female, man/woman roles are not sufficient to embrace their gender/sexual role. The present paper examines how questions pertaining to sexual orientation and gender expression are inter-connected with the politics of citizenship. It also seeks to critically examine the social understandings of sexual identity and the powerful role that it plays in the arenas of family, personal relationships, the economy, work, the media, health, security and the environment. Through an examination of the selected literary texts in Indian writings in English, we will interrogate the ways in which heteronormativity permeates a variety of institutions in the public sphere. We may find answers and ways to respond that would embrace all human beings.
Sexual, Textual and Traumatic subjectivity: August Strindberg representation of class and sexual conflict in Miss Julie (Review Completed - Accepted)
This paper aims at understanding the importance of sexuality and the ways in which sexuality is accorded central status in an attempt to understand human relations, pleasure and satisfaction, sexual subject in culture, to reveal varying degrees of trepidation and anxiety about the ambiguities of sexuality i.e androgyny represents the resolution of the anxieties and tensions of sexual difference in favor of complementarity. In terms of class and gender this paper explores the patriarchal and misogynistic frameworks in which gender and sex were constructed in late 19th century and early 20th century; and how class and power mean mean that, that sexual never signifies in social isolation i.e power comes into play in the machinery of production, in families, limited groups and institutions. In terms of traumatic theory, this paper will see at how sexual trauma takes form of a psychological and ontological angst after reaching sexual maturity.