Tag Archives: Sexual Orientation

Experiences of child sexual abuse in homosexual, heterosexual and bisexual people (Published)

The objective of this research was to describe the experience of child sexual abuse in men and women and the construction of their sexual orientation. The study was qualitative with exploratory scop. The sample was selective, consisting of 6 people, a heterosexual man and a woman; a homosexual man and woman and a bisexual woman and man. A semi-structured interview was included, the following aspects of analysis: experiences before, during and after child sexual abuse; discovery of sexual orientation / preference sexual, sexual fantasies, relationship with parents, and couples. The Atlas ti software in version 7 was used for the analysis. A free coding was carried out, to later make an axial coding in which general categories were obtained that encompass several codes at the same time and that allowed us to create a network of experiences and meanings regarding the aspects of analysis. After sexual abuse, the subjects are afraid, confused and isolated. The subjects describe the insecurity of having sexual intercourse that is attributed to previous experience of sexual abuse. People who have become homosexual and bisexual mention that sexual abuse may have influenced their orientation and they mention it. One of the subjects described as homosexual is mentioned as the cost of work the expression of their sexual orientation and the rape of a man caused fear to men. Five of the six subjects’ feelings of pleasure to have been abused and at the same time present the emotions of fear, disgust and anger, which caused confusion.

Keywords: Child Sexual Abuse, Relationship, Sexual Orientation, Sexuality, experience of abuse

Comparative Overview of Civil Partnership (Published)

Italian legislation has been used many times as an example in drafting the legislation of the Republic of Albania. Since this country has recently adopted the law on regulating civil partnership we are referring to dealing with this institution. Two people with the same gender and seniority create civil partnerships through the declaration before the Civil Registrar Officer and in the presence of two witnesses. Civil Registrar Officer then registers the civil partnership act in the civil registry. Civil partnership can be opposed by the party whose consent is taken by violence or driven by a great external fear set by itself. Also another reason why it can be opposed is also the case in which the consent was given in terms of error on the identity of the person or error over certain qualities of the other party. All people, regardless of sex, sexual orientation or gender identity, have the right to enjoy the protection afforded by human rights legislation, including respect for the right to life, security of the person and his or her privacy, protection against torture, from arbitrary arrest and detention, from discrimination, as well as the right to freedom of expression, association and peaceful assembly. The common living of a gay couple, coupled with a stability in their relationships, is included in the concept of family life.

Keywords: Civil Partnership, Freedom, Gender Identity, Sexual Orientation


The entire systems of social categorization agree to for two sexes – male and female. But some societies explicitly articulate three sex categories, socially distinguishing hermaphrodites as a third, mixed intermediary, or alternate sex. Other societies seems to give consent to additional categories, allowing for a range of mixed, crossed, complex, or fluid identities in between male and female. Indian culture is based on the notion that there are two opposite sexes with distinct culturally approved gender characteristics. Using this binary system allows little tolerance for cultural and social variances of what is perceived to be masculine or feminine. Indian society is much more focused on sexual behaviour rather than social role choices and expectations. In Indian culture some people who are merely dissatisfied with their gender role often feel pressured to anatomically become the other sex through surgery. Some people do not believe that their gender identity corresponds to their biological sex, namely transgender people, including transsexual people and many inter-sexed individuals as well. Consequently, complications arise when society insists that an individual adopt a manner of social expression i.e. gender role which is based on sex. Sexuality, or gender identity, may be all about the cultural response to the individual. Some people may be born with confusing sexuality and they need to find the gender role that fits with their nature, and others find that the male/female, man/woman roles are not sufficient to embrace their gender/sexual role. The present paper examines how questions pertaining to sexual orientation and gender expression are inter-connected with the politics of citizenship. It also seeks to critically examine the social understandings of sexual identity and the powerful role that it plays in the arenas of family, personal relationships, the economy, work, the media, health, security and the environment. Through an examination of the selected literary texts in Indian writings in English, we will interrogate the ways in which heteronormativity permeates a variety of institutions in the public sphere. We may find answers and ways to respond that would embrace all human beings.

Keywords: Homosexuality, Sexual Orientation, Sexuality, Transgender, and Gender


Adhering to the principle of equality and non-discrimination is one of the challenges of the Albanian state to be part of the great European family and to meet the necessary criteria to characterize a democratic country.This challenge becomes greater as it requires not only political and institutional willingness, but also close cooperation with society to change attitudes and mentality discriminating against individuals or groups. Protecting the rights of individuals from discriminatory behavior because of sexual orientation and gender identity is such an issue.This paper aims to analyze how the Albanian legislation protects the rights of LGBTI. It is important to analyze the process of approximation of legislation with the international legislation. Positive changes were made, but remain current need for this process to continue.In the EU Progress Report for Albania 2013 explicitly states: There is legislation in the field of anti-discrimination policies, e.g. concerning the rights of persons lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersexual (LGBTI). Albanian authorities should implement the existing legislation and to draft new legislation in the field of anti-discrimination

Keywords: Approximate Legislation, Gender Identity, Protection From Discrimination., Sexual Orientation