Comparative Overview of Civil Partnership (Published)
Italian legislation has been used many times as an example in drafting the legislation of the Republic of Albania. Since this country has recently adopted the law on regulating civil partnership we are referring to dealing with this institution. Two people with the same gender and seniority create civil partnerships through the declaration before the Civil Registrar Officer and in the presence of two witnesses. Civil Registrar Officer then registers the civil partnership act in the civil registry. Civil partnership can be opposed by the party whose consent is taken by violence or driven by a great external fear set by itself. Also another reason why it can be opposed is also the case in which the consent was given in terms of error on the identity of the person or error over certain qualities of the other party. All people, regardless of sex, sexual orientation or gender identity, have the right to enjoy the protection afforded by human rights legislation, including respect for the right to life, security of the person and his or her privacy, protection against torture, from arbitrary arrest and detention, from discrimination, as well as the right to freedom of expression, association and peaceful assembly. The common living of a gay couple, coupled with a stability in their relationships, is included in the concept of family life.
SEXUAL ORIENTATION AND GENDER IDENTITY: NEGOTIATING DIVERSITIES AND INTERSECTIONS OF QUEER SPACE IN INDIAN WRITINGS (Published)
The entire systems of social categorization agree to for two sexes – male and female. But some societies explicitly articulate three sex categories, socially distinguishing hermaphrodites as a third, mixed intermediary, or alternate sex. Other societies seems to give consent to additional categories, allowing for a range of mixed, crossed, complex, or fluid identities in between male and female. Indian culture is based on the notion that there are two opposite sexes with distinct culturally approved gender characteristics. Using this binary system allows little tolerance for cultural and social variances of what is perceived to be masculine or feminine. Indian society is much more focused on sexual behaviour rather than social role choices and expectations. In Indian culture some people who are merely dissatisfied with their gender role often feel pressured to anatomically become the other sex through surgery. Some people do not believe that their gender identity corresponds to their biological sex, namely transgender people, including transsexual people and many inter-sexed individuals as well. Consequently, complications arise when society insists that an individual adopt a manner of social expression i.e. gender role which is based on sex. Sexuality, or gender identity, may be all about the cultural response to the individual. Some people may be born with confusing sexuality and they need to find the gender role that fits with their nature, and others find that the male/female, man/woman roles are not sufficient to embrace their gender/sexual role. The present paper examines how questions pertaining to sexual orientation and gender expression are inter-connected with the politics of citizenship. It also seeks to critically examine the social understandings of sexual identity and the powerful role that it plays in the arenas of family, personal relationships, the economy, work, the media, health, security and the environment. Through an examination of the selected literary texts in Indian writings in English, we will interrogate the ways in which heteronormativity permeates a variety of institutions in the public sphere. We may find answers and ways to respond that would embrace all human beings.
Adhering to the principle of equality and non-discrimination is one of the challenges of the Albanian state to be part of the great European family and to meet the necessary criteria to characterize a democratic country.This challenge becomes greater as it requires not only political and institutional willingness, but also close cooperation with society to change attitudes and mentality discriminating against individuals or groups. Protecting the rights of individuals from discriminatory behavior because of sexual orientation and gender identity is such an issue.This paper aims to analyze how the Albanian legislation protects the rights of LGBTI. It is important to analyze the process of approximation of legislation with the international legislation. Positive changes were made, but remain current need for this process to continue.In the EU Progress Report for Albania 2013 explicitly states: There is legislation in the field of anti-discrimination policies, e.g. concerning the rights of persons lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and intersexual (LGBTI). Albanian authorities should implement the existing legislation and to draft new legislation in the field of anti-discrimination