Towards Improving the Effectiveness of the Public Procurement Rules of Bangladesh: Lessons from the United Nations Procurement Manual (Published)
Every year Bangladesh has to incur about 14 billion USD through Annual Development Program (ADP) for the procurement of goods, works and services in the public sector. Bangladesh has her home grown laws and regulations to ensure transparency, accountability, fairness, open competition to ensure value for money in the public spending. To this end, Bangladesh is constantly adapting international standard practices. United Nations (UN) has a unique procurement manual through which it procures all the goods, works and services. The standards followed by the UN can be compared with those of the Public Procurement Rules (PPR) of Bangladesh and lessons can be incorporated in Bangladesh to streamline the public procurement.
Dairying is viable for smallholders but suffers from high transaction costs hence the need for cooperatives that aid farmers to access various services. Agricultural extension disseminates knowledge, physical inputs, credit and builds farmer’ capacity for collecting bargaining and marketing their produce. A descriptive study design was adopted, 200 participants were selected using multi stratified random sampling. Secondary and primary data were collected using a semis-structured checklist and structured questionnaire respectively. Mean productivities for farmers who used or didn’t use extension services were compared using an independent samples t-test statistics. Dairy farmers who accessed business training, artificial insemination, improved fodder and concentrates increased milk production. Access to extension services explained 25.5% of the variations in milk production per cow per day. Dairy farmers are operating profitably with average monthly revenue ($215) versus expenditure ($58).interventions aimed at supporting dairy farmers to increase milk production should prioritize cooperatives and extension services.
This purpose of this paper is to explore the key success factors influencing students trust on Tesco grocery services. Using survey approach, the study adopted, simple random sampling in selecting a total of 70 students of the University of Bedfordshire who shop at Tesco. The analysis shows that organisations feel that customer trust gradually turns into customer loyalty. The findings revealed that a number of factors shapes students trust in Tesco grocery services mainly convenience, price and the quality of products and services.
University Library Services and Academic Success of Students: A Case Study of Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria (Published)
This research is a venture into a study of the impact of some selected library services on the academic success of students of the Federal University of Technology, Owerri, Nigeria with a view to establish if there exists any relationship between specific library services and academic performance of students. A test-retest reliability method of two weeks interval was conducted. Responses obtained were subjected to Pearson Products Moment Correlation (PPMC) method and a reliability coefficient of 0.83 was obtained. Multistage sampling technique was employed. 1656 respondents were selected for the study, with 89% response rate. Descriptive and inferential statistics were employed in the study. The study found that the significant mean score of Internet services (3.33), Selective dissemination of Information SDI(2.93), and circulation services(2.97) were above average (2.5) with reference services(2.46) alone being below average. However, only Internet Services(R=0.880 p-value=0.049<0.05) was found to correlate significantly with the student academic performance. The most utilized services at FUTO library are the internet services, seconded by Book Loan services. It was recommended that more effort should be put to ensure the sustenance of internet and circulation services as they help students achieve higher test scores.
Utilization of Family Planning Services Among Women of Child Bearing Age (15-45 Years) From 2011 To2013 in Calabar South Local Government Area Of Cross River State-Nigeria (Published)
High fertility and lack of proper family planning had resulted in large population growth rate in the country. One of the most effective ways to address population growth and achieve larger sustainable development goals is to increase access to sustainable free voluntary family planning services (Disu, 2012). This study therefore seeks to assess utilization of family planning services among women of child bearing age in Calabar South Local Government Area of Cross River State-Nigeria. To achieve this purpose of the study, three research questions were raised to guide the study. Retrospective study design was used. Records of 398 women who were attending family planning clinics in selected four primary health facilities from 2011 to 2013 were used, and structured checklist was developed. Data collected were analysed using tables and simple percentage. The results of the study showed that about 145 (36.4%) number of women utilized family planning in 2013. Oral method of contraceptive was mostly used by the women, indicating 46 (35%), and that family planning is mostly used by women with about 3-4 children which accounted for 122 (31%) of the women. The result also showed that a large proportion of the women were influenced by friends to utilize family planning services which amounted to about 185 (46%). Non-acceptance of family planning by husbands showing 294 (73.9%) was the main factor hindering utilization. It was recommended that mass mobilization and creation of awareness should be carried out to sensitise the people on public acceptance of family planning to break taboos, myths and misconceptions about family planning services especially by husbands to control rapid population growth in the study area.
Factors Influencing Preference for Faith-Based Maternity Health Services Among Pregnant Women in Ogbomoso North LGA, Oyo State (Published)
Poor maternal and child health characterized by high incidence and prevalence of maternal and child mortality and morbidity continues to pose grave challenge to health and development indicators in sub-Saharan Africa. Nigeria occupies a notable position in the region accounting for poor maternal and child health indicators. Utilization of maternal and child health services plays a strong buffering role against maternal mortality. Unfortunately, accessing these services in formal settings among Nigerians especially in rural and per-urban areas is low. Faith based maternity homes provide alternative to maternal health services provided in the formal setting notwithstanding that the procedures involved in majority of such centres are spirituality oriented. Investigating factors influencing the preference of these settings over the formal setting is therefore an important issue for research. This study investigated factors influencing preference for faith based maternity centres among a representative sample of women attending these centres in Ogbomoso North LGA of Oyo State. The descriptive survey research design was employed in the study and data generated from 125 respondents sampled from two faith based maternity centres in the local government area. Generated data were analysed using descriptive statistics of frequency counts and percentages and inferential statistics of simple regression at 0.05 alpha level. Findings of the study showed that financial cost (R = 0.686, F(1, 123) = 109.560, p=0.000<0.05.), attitude of health care workers, incessant strike actions and distance of formal health centres significantly influence preference for fait based maternity homes. Recommendations were made on addressing these factors in order to contribute significantly in reducing maternal mortality and morbidity.
A Consideration of the Possibility of DoS and DDoS Attacks That Could Guarantee Downtime and Unavailability of Services to Customers for Businesses and Government Institutions in Ghana. (Published)
This paper discusses the possible security attacks that most services provided by businesses and government organizations are vulnerable to. Specifically exhausting discussion on Denial of Service and Distributed Denial of Service attacks and the measures to address this issue.
The advent of service areas like financial advisory services, funds transfers and international trade among others helps propel Nigeria banks into the development of new and improved service delivery channels. Information and communication technology (ICT) rapidly emerged as the platform for building integrating and communicating effective service to customers. Today in Nigeria servers, personal computers and local / wide area networks have taken a firm foot as the minimum requirement for rendering credible and effective banking services. Adenuga (2003), the recent trends in Information Technology (IT) are becoming central to the process of economic development. IT offers new ways of exchanging information, transacting business, changes the nature of the financial and other services sectors and provides efficient means of using the human and institutional capabilities of countries in both the public and private sectors. IT can be applied to every conceivable activity; from collecting taxes to bank management, complex scientific and technical problems.
Evaluation of Product and Service E-Procurement Policy within the Environment of Tangerang Municipal Government (Published)
The core of the problem in this research is about Evaluation of Products and Service e-Procurement Policy within the Environment of Tangerang Municipal Government. This research was conducted using qualitative descriptive method. Informants for this research was nine evaluators consisting of five persons of Municipal Secretary, one person from the inspectorate, one person from Information and Communication Service/UPTD LPSE and two persons from product/service providers. Results of this research show that evaluation of the product and service e-procurement policy based on the effectiveness criterion was not effective yet, because in the auction target there were several activity packages that should be re-auction – that are 163 packages in 2012 and 580 packages in 2013. In addition, E-Procurement System (Sistem Pengadaan Secara Electronic, SPSE) had not been capable of detecting erroneous or mistaken administrative bundles. For efficiency criterion, it was shown that the target of efficiency has been achieved, as suggested by budget efficiency from the HPS (self-estimated price) ratio with the work contract at 12.27 percents in 2012 and 10.62 percents in 2013. For the adequacy criterion, it was revealed that the result has been adequate, in respect of authority given to the task force (Pokja) to conduct auction process as stipulated in either Perpres (Presidential Decree) No. 70 year 2012 which is the second amendment of the Perpres (Presidential Decree) No. 54 year 2010 or the Decree of Product and/or Service Procurement Department. For the criterion of even distribution, the result was not good yet, because information obtained by from evaluation conducted by evaluators were not reported to the policy maker (the city mayor), and were also not delivered to head of SKPD. Likewise, for the criterion of responsiveness, the result was not good yet, because local businessmen or entrepreneurs still asked assistance and guidelines, in the form of two-monthly meetings, from the Tangerang local government. Until now, such meeting was conducted only once in the form of construction service technical training conducted by the Urban Planning Service. Whereas for the criterion of accuracy, it was known that the result was accurate or feasible for the community needs, because of the existing generality, consistence, clarity and fairness and efficiency.
MARKETING OF BANKING SERVICES AND CONSUMER SATISFACTION IN THE NIGERIAN BANKING INDUSTRY (Published)
The study examined the marketing of bank services in some selected banks in Nigeria. It also aimed at identifying the various marketing principles being applied, and which actually enhanced consumers’ value and consumers’ satisfaction. Hypotheses were propounded to assist in validating the objectives. The study was carried out among top ten banks that survived the re-capitalisation and consolidation process carried out by the Central Bank of Nigeria. Data for the study were obtained from primary and secondary sources. Using random sampling 340 bank customers were selected from the ten banks. The primary data were collected through questionnaires and focus group discussions. The questionnaires were administered to 340 customers of the selected banks who were chosen from the traffic count and customer cycle per week. Secondary data were collected from banks’ journals, annual reports, newsletters, official diaries, brochures, textbooks and academic journals. The data were analysed using both descriptive and inferential statistical methods such as percentages, frequency counts mean scores and, histogram. Finally, the result revealed that marketing practices explained 48% of changes in consumers’ satisfaction (F = 19.06; P < 0.05).The study concluded that applying various marketing concepts enhanced consumers’ satisfaction.
The study sought to look at the role of marketing communication in the provision of micro finance services, using Bonzali Rural Bank, in the Northern Region of Ghana as a case study. Both the qualitative and quantitative research approaches were used to gather information from Bonzali Rural Bank. The researchers adopted the quota, purposive and simple random sampling methods to select the respondents. Questionnaires were respectively administered to customers of Bonzali Rural Bank. The data was analysed by means of descriptive and inferential statistics using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS).Some of the key findings during the research were that the physical evidence of the Bank was not the best. Personal selling according to the research was not at its peak, an indication that the Bank has not done a lot in that regard. Based on the findings, the Bank is doing well with the Marketing Communication Mix Elements. The researchers recommended that the Bank should focused on the physical evidence, i.e., the environment it operates including the building itself, equipment, vehicles etc. as they all communicate with the customers and the customers’ make judgment of the services provided by the Bank through the physical evidence. Not only that, but the processes and the people who deliver the services
Rural Agribusiness-Based Household Preferences and Management Of Communication Services In Abia State, Nigeria: A Hedonic Approach (Published)
This study on agribusiness-based household preferences and management of communication services in Abia State, Nigeria was analyzed using a hedonic approach. The study tried to identify which mobile communication services impacts most on agribusiness households, and which network provider guarantees better utility to the household users. Thus, 240 agribusiness-based households were selected using multistage sampling technique. Two out of three agribusiness zones in Abia State were selected namely: Aba and Umuahia agricultural zones were selected for the study. The study made use of primary data obtained using a well-structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, multivariate tests and Hedonic analysis were used for the data analysis. Results revealed that males (61.67%) dominated as agribusiness-based householdsâ€™ heads in the study area. Majority (26.25%) of households were in the age bracket of 61-70 years who were also engage in agricultural activities being their major activity. The hedonic model revealed that household characteristics such as sex, education, electricity connection to household buildings, ownership of house, and increased household size related positively with household ability to settle call prices charged by the preferred network provider while poor and extremely poor households related negatively with ability to settle call prices as charged on calls per day. The multivariate test showed that Mobile Telecommunication Network (MTN) Limited Communication service impacted most on the welfare of these households than Globalcom (GLO) communication services Nigeria Limited. No meaningful contribution was observed in the case of Airtel communication services. It was recommended that communication service providers in the study area should reduce their call rates to accommodate the poor and extremely poor households in order to increase household preferences and subscriptions.