Knowledge Sharing and Utilisation as Means of Service Delivery among Library Personnel in Selected Universities in Southwest, Nigeria (Published)
This study examines knowledge sharing and utilization as means of service delivery among Library personnel in selected universities in Southwest, Nigeria. The population of the study was made up of Academic Librarians, Library Officers and Library Assistants. The study covered 12Nigerian University Libraries. Questionnaire was used for data collection. The instruments were grouped into four sections. Findings of the study revealed that both the tacit and explicit knowledge were being shared among the library personnel in which tacit knowledge was the most shared knowledge, library personnel shared knowledge with their colleagues most in the same department, seminars, workshops, mobile phones, conferences and staff meeting were the major modes of knowledge sharing and finally, the study revealed that acquisition, cataloguing and classification, selective dissemination of information and inter library loan were the major types of services rendered among library personnel in the selected universities in Southwest, Nigeria. Some of the recommendations were that Library management should encourage and promote knowledge sharing and knowledge utilization among library personnel and Library management should clearly state knowledge management strategy and create knowledge sharing initiatives in the library’s goals.
Human Information Infrastructure and Administrative Efficiency (HIIAE) Of Selected Enterprises in the Civil Aviation Industry in the South-South, Nigeria (Published)
This paper examined how human infrastructure impacts on administration efficiency of aviation industry in Nigeria. In line with the purpose of this paper as stated, population of this study comprises of 80 senior and junior staff of the various ICT departments of four Airports operating in the South-South of Nigeria. The Taro-Yamene sample size determination formula was used to determine the sample size. The objective of this study is to assess the relationship between human infrastructure impacts on administration efficiency of aviation industry. Questionnaires were the major instruments used in gathering primary data which were analyzed using regression analyses. The study found that aviation industry can achieve improvement along the terms of administration efficiency if the aviation industry is able to improve on their products and deliver on their service more effectively and efficiently base on the findings, we recommends that in order for firms to maintain their attractiveness in the industry, they must have be conscious what modern technology is available in the industry and apply same on their own business as this will help the in expanding their market coverage with different products.
Re-Focusing Public Administration for Improved Service Delivery: The Need to Strenghten Ethics (Published)
There are wide ranging accusations that public administration in recent time have failed to live up to the expectations of the growing population of Nigerians. This is in view of the persistent cases of under-performance, deepened corruption, lack of professionalism, inertia and general insensitivity to the increasing public service needs and demands of the people. Public administration in the immediate post-colonial era was perceived more disciplined, accountable and responsive and performed better. These concerns have reduced public trust and confidence on public administrators and their capacity for efficient, productive and accountable public services. This article however, acknowledges this high level of dysfunctionality and the implications on service delivery, more especially where there is the collapse of ethics in the public sector. The article is therefore, an attempt to propose for the re-focusing of public administration through ethical culture where unethical standards result in negative consequences. The public sector ethics are a set of standards that guide behaviours of public administrators. Ethical behaviour is therefore, imperative in ensuring that the administrators understand and carry out the business of governance in the most professional, efficient and accountable manner within the scope of public expectations. The paper further suggests ways of deepening and improving ethical behaviour in the country’s public administration for improved service delivery.
Knowledge Integration and Service Delivery of Health Professionals in Public Hospitals in South-South Nigeria (Published)
The specific objective of the study was to ascertain the extent to which knowledge integration influences service delivery of health professionals in public hospitals in South-South Nigeria. The study employed a correlation design. A sample of 596 respondents were selected from twelve categorized public hospitals is South-South using Taro Yamani’s formula. 34 questions were formulated in the questionnaire in line with the stated objective of the study. A total of 596 copies of questionnaire were administered and 551 copies were collected showing 92 percent responses, 10 responses were rejected and 541 copies constituting 90 percent of the questionnaire were analyzed. The results showed that there is positive significant relationship between knowledge integration and service delivery of health professionals in public hospitals in South-South Nigeria. The study concluded that the integration of knowledge management in service delivery is a vital aspect of learning in healthcare organization, as new discoveries and knowledge become available to professionals in their respective fields which have to acquire, transmit, retain and use the knowledge. The study therefore, recommends that organizations of various sizes should adequately integrate knowledge management enablers’ factors in their organizational culture and leadership to enhance organizational performance and provision of service quality. The integration of new knowledge in all the units within the healthcare institutions/organizations and adequate implementation of health policies and programmes will help to transform the healthcare delivery into a more cost effective error averse and accountable public resources. There should be an increasing individuals’ confidence in integrating useful knowledge with others. Knowledge integration can be enhanced by increasing employees’ self-efficacy through training. Organizations are expected to help shape and facilitate staff perceptions of knowledge ownership which have been found to enhance their knowledge integration because of internal satisfaction.
Implementation of civil service reforms in Southeast Nigeria: A Review of Service Compact with all Nigerians (SERVICOM) (Published)
The paper assesses the Implementation of civil service reforms in Southeast Nigeria using the 2005 Service Compact with all Nigerians (SERVICOM) as focus. A cross-sectional survey method wherein structured questionnaire was used to collect data was adopted. From a total population of 2,758, a calculated sample of 400 respondents was adopted using Guilford and Flruchter (1973). With the aid of strategic model of Human Resource Management [SHRM] theory, percentage, and chi-square (χ2) tools, the data generated was analysed. The results reveal that the Civil Service Commissions have not sufficiently established the structural requirements 0f SERVICOM, failed to substantially establish SERVICOM procedures and principles, and failed to apply customer problem and satisfaction survey mechanisms to assess its services. Therefore, this paper recommends a time-tagged ultimatum to the Civil Service Commissions to implement all the SERVICOM requirements and establish its procedures and principles. A special unit/department should also be created with the sole oversight function of managing reforms in the civil service.
Enhancing Library Services Delivery in the 21st Century in Africa: The Role of Cloud Technologies (Published)
The impact of technological advancements has been greatly felt in virtually every sphere of human society. Libraries are no exception to this trend and the need for libraries to embrace this change is pertinent to their survival. The new patronage of libraries and information centres are now more techno-savvy than the previous generation of library users. The preference for internet and web-based services has become more evident. Libraries and information centres now compete with rival agencies who provide similar and alternative services which have made users rely more on the alternatives provided by these agencies. With the changing information seeking behaviour of library patrons, libraries must consider alternative options to service delivery. The paper explores cloud services, the types and models, and the roles that cloud computing and technologies can play in enhancing library services in the 21st century. Cloud computing was x-rayed, the roles were discussed at item level, benefits of cloud to libraries, and the implication to libraries and library and information professionals for service delivery.
Assessing University Students’ Satisfaction with Service Delivery: Implications for Educational Management (Published)
The study investigated students’ satisfaction with service delivery in universities in Akwa Ibom and Cross River States, Nigeria. Five areas of service delivery namely library, health, transportation, Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and hostel services were considered in the study. The extent to which students’ satisfaction with service delivery varied with types of institution was also examined. Survey research design was adopted for the study. Five research questions and one hypothesis guided the study. The population of the study comprised all the undergraduate students in four universities in the study area. Simple random sampling technique was used to draw a sample of 1466 (915 from federal owned and 551 from state owned universities) students for the study. The instrument for data collection was titled “Students’ Satisfaction with Service Delivery Questionnaire (ASSSDQ)”. The reliability of the instrument using Cronbach Alpha method was 0.85. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics (frequencies and percentages) and independent t-test. The hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance. Findings obtained revealed that majority of the respondents indicated dissatisfaction with library, hostel, as well as Information and communication services, while they showed moderate satisfaction with health and transport services. It was also found that students’ satisfaction with service delivery in terms of library and health services significantly differed by their institution’s affiliation, while they did not show significant difference in their satisfaction with transport, ICT and hostel services. Recommendations for improvement in service delivery in universities were made one of which being that all services that contributes to students’ academic life in the universities are delivered to an acceptable and satisfactory standard.
This study centers on service compatibility (SEVICOM) and service delivery in the Nigerian Police Force (NPF). Empirical studies on service delivery in the Nigerian civil authority sector 3124are very scanty. The broad objective of this study is to investigate empirically the effect of service compatibility (SERVICOM) on the quality of service delivery in the NPF. In order to achieve this objective, survey design was adopted and the population of study comprises the police officers in the Ekiti state police command and the consumers of police service in Ekiti state, Nigeria. Taro Yamane’s formula was used to determine the sample sizes of both the police personnel and the consumers of police service in Ekiti State. Stratified random sampling and convenience sampling were used as the sampling methods for the police personnel and the consumers of police service respectively. Questionnaire was adopted and the reliability was tested using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the research questions while One-way ANOVA and simple linear regression were used to test the hypotheses. It was found that the introduction of SERVICOM into the NPF has no significant effect on the quality of the service delivery in the NPF, both service timeliness and service professionalism has positive effect on NPF service delivery though not statistically significant. It was concluded that this study has provided empirical evidences that SERVICOM introduction has not improve timeliness and professionalism of service in the NPF. We recommend that the NPF should set machinery in motion to ensure full implementation of SERVICOM in order to improve the quality of service delivery in the Nigerian Police Force.
Individual and socio-cultural differences among team members in breweries in the South East in particular and Nigeria in general constitute a challenge to effective teamwork, thereby giving rise to inconsistencies among team members. It becomes important to ascertain the relationship between harmonization and service delivery in selected breweries in South East, Nigeria. The general objective of the study is to examine team building and employee performance in selected breweries in South East, Nigeria, while the study specifically ascertained the relationship between harmonization and service delivery of the selected breweries in South East, Nigeria. The study used descriptive survey design with a sample size of 262 respondents. Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient on SPSS ver.22 was used to test the hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The study revealed that when there is harmony among the employees of an organization, there is always cohesion, trust, commitment, and understanding of the team dynamics, thereby improving the service delivery of employees of the selected breweries in South East, Nigeria. It was therefore recommended that breweries in South East, Nigeria should employ managers that would be saddled with the responsibility of building harmony through trust among the employees while building teams for effective service delivery; and also ensure that team building should go with policy that would checkmate the excesses of the teams
The capacity to deploy human capital in the manufacturing sector in Nigeria has been limited by ethnicity which seems to have affected their service delivery due to their inability to utilize and implement ethnic diversity. The general objective of the study was to examine workforce diversity and performance of Nigerian Breweries Plc, Enugu, while the study specifically ascertained the relationship existing between ethnic diversity and service delivery of Nigerian Breweries Plc, Enugu. The study adopted descriptive survey design. The study has a population of 474 employees. Taro Yamane’s formula was used to determine the sample size of 217 employees. The data obtained from the questionnaire were analyzed using Pearson Product-Moment Correlation Coefficient on SPSS ver. 22. The study found out that there was a strong, positive relationship between ethnic diversity and the service delivery of Nigerian Breweries Plc, Enugu. It was recommended that the Nigerian Breweries Plc, Enugu should integrate diversity management into its management structure to ensure that organisational service delivery is enhanced through ethnic diversity
Challenges and Prospects of Good Governance in Reduction of Poverty: A Case Study of Buee Town 01 Kebele, Ethiopia (Published)
This research paper contains challenges and prospects of good governance in Buee town 01 Kebele, Ethiopia. At recent time the different definition of the term of good governance given by various international organizations and an attempt has been made to explain in detail the meaning, element and characteristics of good governance. Hence, the principles indicators of poverty reduction need to begin by looking at improvement of the standards of living of people given human needs fundamentals. This research paper used to follow the necessary procedure orderly written by designing background, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, significance of the study, scope of the study, limitation of the study and also used different research design and methodology of the study such as data source that includes primary and secondary source of data and sampling techniques, method of data collection. The major findings are concluded, lack of community participation in plant preparation, discontinuity of public utility, lack of efficient and effective service delivery to the community, lack of competent work force between the community, the Kebele’s manager is not elected by community and the concerned body is not created awareness to the community with the concept and elements of good governance that contribute in reduction of poverty. The researcher believes that reduction of poverty need the existence of practical of good governance more. The conclusions and recommendations have been put in brief manner.
This paper preoccupied itself with the assessment of special education service delivery to persons with disabilities. Individuals with disabilities, who are the subjects of special education, encounter difficulties that prevent or make it strenuous to use a part of their body completely or easily or that they cannot learn easily. Special education service delivery requires the expertise of special educators and para-professionals like the psychologists, social welfare workers, medical personnel and a host of others who are charged with the delivery of quality special education services to meet the needs of all persons with disabilities. Special education services include rehabilitation services, assessment/identification strategies, home/hospital based services, provision of materials/equipment and assistive technology for persons with disabilities etc. Globally, there are two paradigms for service delivery namely special school setting and general or regular school settings. The paper sampled trends of service delivery in India, Brazil, Kenya, Malaysia and of course Nigeria. The paper found that most countries have embraced the regular classroom as modality for service delivery for persons with disabilities. The paper identified challenges in the areas of teacher-pupil ratio, funding, failure of parental instruction, individualized education programme, special facilities, equipment and assistive technology, poor rehabilitation services, inclusion, attitudes to persons with disability amongst others that must be tackled to enable efficient service delivery for persons with disability. It was on this note that the paper was concluded.
Challenges of Local Government Administration in Nigeria: Lessons from Comparative Analysis (Published)
Local government administration in Nigeria is classified as the third tier of government while several problems have been its recurring decimal and various reforms since 1976 haven’t been able to make the system effective and responsible to developmental challenges. Most responses to the challenges have concentrated on looking inward for respite without much success informed this the paper to examine the lessons that could be learnt from comparative local government studies from nations like United States of America, France, India and Britain. It is a descriptive study that relied on secondary data sources. The paper revealed that the challenges inhibiting efficient service delivery range from undue intervention by the state governments, the structure, corruption, over politicization of administration and staffing which were not found to be so in other systems. The study concluded that the challenges are institutional and attitudinal in nature which could be addressed given that there is the political will by the Federal and State governments. It recommended a democratized multilayer local government system, legal framework to checkmate excessive intervention by State government, enhancement of human resources capacity and accountable leadership.
The Importance of Setting Performance Targets on Service Delivery in Performance Contracting At the Ministry of Tourism, Kenya (Published)
Performance targets are an important component of management control systems by serving as a standard against which performance is often evaluated in service at the end of a specified period. Thereby, targets largely determine bonuses, career prospects and promotion decisions to motivate service delivery efforts and retain employees. Given this prominent role of targets in business practice, it is important to understand how the public sector sets performance targets to contract with managers. This paper is an insight into the impact of setting performance targets in enhancing performance in service delivery of the public sector. The study employed a descriptive survey design to help obtain and describe information impact of performance targets on service delivery. The target population comprised 164 employees working at Ministry of Tourism headquarters at top, middle and lower levels of management. The human resource framework for the ministries in Kenya are identical thus the study results can be generalized to other ministries. The sample was drawn from each stratum using the simple random sampling technique. Questionnaires were the major source of data collection; a semi-structured questionnaire was most preferable. The author mainly used descriptive statistics that included percentages, mean and standard deviation to analyze data. The findings and recommendations will assist management in enhancing the use of performance targets so as to enhance performance. It sensitizes the employees on the relationship between good performance and good rewards through achievement of set targets.
Effect Of Project Model Change On Project Performance In Rwanda: A Case of World Vision’s Village Savings Loan Associations Project Model in Nyamata Area Development Programme (Published)
This research will focus on the impact of project model change on project performance: a case of Village savings loans and associations in Nyamata Area development programme of World Vision Rwanda. This model of project called VSLAs has been initiated by Care International and World Vision Rwanda (WVR) is applying the model with the purpose of creating self-reliance and auto financing capacities among poor families from Nyamata Area Development programme. VSLAs project members have been able to mobilize their own savings and run income generating activities to satisfy their basic needs without relying on external support and then enjoy the empowerment and sustainability of VSLAs project interventions.The overall purpose is to find out if VSLAs project model is contributing to high project performance in the community of Nyamata Area Development Programme. The objectives of the study are to assess the economic status of the beneficiaries involved in VSLA , to examine family dynamics/social impact for or members of the VSLA, to examine how VSLA has impacted the environment and to analyse how VSLA has alleviated dependency in Nyamata ADP. The target population is 1250 members of the 50 VSLAs groups in Nyamata Area Development Programme. The proposed research design is correlation research whichgives an estimate as to the degree of association between the variables. A simple random sampling technique will be used to select members of VSLAs to be interviewed on how they have been positively affected by being VSLAs members. A sample size will be 120 members of VSLA groups determined using AllainBuchardformular. Both primary and secondary data will be used in this research study. The primary data will be collected directly from the respondents by use of questionnaires, interviews and observation. Secondary data on the other hand will be collected by reviewing Nyamata programme reports, and project design documents about VSLAs formation and how it improves project performance in the targeted area.Concerning the research instruments, the researcher will use closed-ended and open-ended questionnaires directed to members of VLSAs.Descriptive analysis will be used to summarize the characteristics of the respondents, the descriptive statistics will involved the use of mean, frequency, percentages and standard deviation on how VSLAs members have been impacted in creating IGAs, green environment, paying school fees , making decision in the family, acquiring new assets and paying health insurance. The results from this research will be presented in form of tables and bar graphs. The researcher hopes that this study will help World Vision Organization to replicate this project model to all other remaining 28 Area Development programme in Rwanda
PERFORMANCE CONTRACT IN KENYAN PUBLIC UNIVERSITIES; IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES AND STRATEGIES (Review Completed - Accepted)
The purpose of the study was to investigate performance contract implementation issues and strategies in Kenya, a case study of Moi University.The objectives of study were to; investigate performance contract implementation issues in relation to staff performance review; asses performance contract issues in relation to consequences of signing performance Contract ;establish staff issues in relation to implementation of performance contract policy for lecturers.A case study was used to guide this study which utilized mixed method approach. The target population was 761 academic staff and 994 non academic staff. Purposive sampling was used to select 19 staff of high cadre. Proportionate stratified sampling was used to get 50% of the departments from each school and from departments in the administrative unit. A total of 170 academic staff and118 non academic staff participated in this study. Data was collected using questionnaires and interview shedules. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics whereby frequencies and percentages were used. The study found out that employees were not allowed to participate and contribute in setting targets at the beginning of the contract period. Furthermore, it was found out that signing of performance contract led to improved service delivery,greater job satisfaction and customer satisfaction. However, good work is not noticed, recognized and rewarded and no sanctions were made at the end of the contract period. It was recommended that the institution should ensure that staff are allowed to participate and contribute in setting the realistic and achievable targets in their departments at the beginning of the contract period. The government through universities should design a reward or sanction system as they implement the signing of Performance Contract in government institutions. It was further recommended that; for proper implementation, more training on the content of the performance contract should be done. It is hoped that the findings of this study will form a basis for formulation of policies on strategies for effective implementation of performance contract in gorvenment institutions. Furthermore, policy solutions will be provided on challenges of implementing performance contracting. .
TACTICAL PROCUREMENT MANAGEMENT AND SERVICE DELIVERY IN LOCAL GOVERNMENTS OF UGANDA: A CASE OF NEBBI DISTRICT LOCAL GOVERNMENT (Published)
The Public procurement in Uganda and the rest of the world is increasingly coming under pressure to go beyond the implementation of policies and procedures and to produce results in service delivery. However in Uganda despite the availability of institutional frame work and policies, there have been some challenges in the management of tactical procurement to yield the expected results. This study was conducted to examine the influence of tactical procurement process, competence of stake holders and strategic interventions in tactical procurement in Nebbi District Local Government. Structured questionnaires were developed and administered to a sample size of 84 public procurement stakeholders in Nebbi District. Data was analyzed and interpreted using mean and the regression model. The study revealed that tactical procurement management greatly influences service delivery by (R2 value 61%, and Sig. = 0.000), which was largely attributed to the high levels at which competence of procurement management stakeholders influenced service delivery in Nebbi District (r2 = 68%, Sig. 0.046). It was noted that most of the stakeholders still have procurement knowledge gaps hence affecting service delivery management in the District. The findings further revealed that tactical procurement process and strategic interventions statistically have insignificant influence on service delivery in this study. It was concluded that tactical procurement management can positively influence service delivery in the District, and it was recommended that the District should put more resources in building capacities of stakeholders.
In developing countries, public procurement is increasingly recognized as essential in service delivery and it accounts for huge proportion of total expenditures. However, there is a growing recognition that, despite significant increases in resource, public service delivery is falling in many developing countries. Poor service delivery of electricity can be justified by ineffective procurement systems within an organization. The purpose of this study is to evaluate procurement practices influencing service delivery in the public sector with focus on the provision of electricity: A case study of Kenya Power. The study is based on the socio-economic and institutional theories. The objectives of the study; to establish the influence of procurement policy on service delivery, to evaluate how procurement planning influence service delivery, and to evaluate sustainable procurement practices influence on service delivery. Methodology used in the study is a case study with a focus on Kenya power. Stratified sampling technique was used to select a representative sample from a target population of 160 employees with a sample size of 100 respondents. The respond rate is 71%. A mixture of Interview and Likert- Scale questionnaire were employed. The collected data was further analyzed using SPSS and excel computer software as well as descriptive statistics. The findings revealed that: Procurement rule and regulation lack flexibility and it is hampering the procurements operations as revealed by 77.5%; Procurement planning does not take long term cost of ownership into consideration as also revealed by 39.4%; the findings also revealed 59.1% agreed that there is no Sustainable procurement practice by the company even though it has Green policy in places but, the implementation is hampered by organizational culture as well as budgetary constraint. The followings are major Recommendations: The National procurement policy or rules and regulations should be review to put into place clauses that will lead to flexibility and inclusion of emerging trends in the procurement process as procurement is an involving profession; The top management should ensure that the procurement departments are involved in all procurement and contract related activities as a result of the decentralize nature of the company’s procurement system; The planning process for electricity expansion should involve all concern departments so that planning can be done in advance before budgets are approved; Government should increase it subsidy to the company’s operation; The company should include sustainable procurement criteria within its procurement and contracting decisions.
ANALYSIS OF THE IMPACT OF EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE ON ORGANISATIONAL PERFORMANCE: A BANKING PERSPECTIVE (Published)
The popularity of emotional intelligence in service marketing is on the ascendency. Its popularity could also be attributed to its potential for business growth. This study seeks to analyse and verify the impact of emotional intelligence on organisational growth in the banking sector of Ghana. The study adopts a quantitative research technique in which hypotheses are tested to verify the relationship between emotional intelligence and organisational growth in terms of return on investment. The study is based on 20 banks in Ghana. Pearson’s correlation test, partial correlation test and ordinary least squares regression analysis were used in testing hypotheses. Findings of this study indicate that emotional intelligence is positively related to organisational performance (p < .05). Emotional intelligence also significantly predicts organisational performance (p < .05) with a variability of 30.6%, while it has a significant moderating effect on the relationship between customer satisfaction and business performance (p < .05). It is recommended that banks formalise and regularise their investments in the acquisition of emotional intelligence skills for maximum organisational performance.
Challenges encountered by the human resource in the implementation of performance contract in Kenya: A study of registration of persons Kericho district. (Review Completed - Accepted)
The purpose of the study was to find out on the influence of performance contract on public service delivery in the registration of persons Kericho district-Kenya. The study focused on establishing on the challenges encountered by the human resource in the department as one of the study objectives in the implementation of performance contract in the enhancement of public service delivery using the 2011-2012 service delivery period as the reference point. Performance contracts being a new tool of service delivery focuses on efficiency, effectiveness, transparency, accountability and inclusiveness in terms of the discussed, projected and agreed targets to be realized within a given time frame of the service delivery appraisal period. The study adopted survey design method from a sample size of (220) respondents who were purposefully and randomly identified. Envisaged data was collected by use of questionnaires structured in Likert scale system. The study adopted and enhanced (2012) Vroom’s theory of motivation (1964) to underpin the same as it was viewed to have some sentimental attachments to the human resource in terms of motivation upon successful attainment of the projected performance targets as compared to other related theories such as Rosseau’s (1994) psychological contract theory which was viewed as being verbally transmitted and legally unbinding. Collected data was sorted out, cleaned, coded and analyzed by using statistical packages of social scientists program (SPSS). The analysed data was qualitatively and quantitatively expressed and its findings graphically presented. Based on the study objective, study findings pointed out that the human resources and potential national identity card stakeholders encountered varieties of challenges when implementing the requirements and principles of performance contract in the enhancement of public service delivery in their service delivery entry points as further explained and pointed out in the study findings. From the study findings, it was recommended that challenges encountered by the human resource when implementing performance contract in the area of study be aggressively and expeditiously addressed by the authorized agencies so as to realize the projections and objectives of performance contract terms in relation to effective and efficient public service delivery to various stakeholders as envisaged in the said department’s service delivery citizens charters.