Background: This descriptive cross sectional and analytical study has been done to study prevalence of Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the impact of associated factors affecting prevalence in Ethiopian people in west Juref in Khartoum state. Methods: Seventy five blood samples collected from patients coming to Alfaruk medical center, seeking for medical care. Serum was separated from blood and subjected to rapid testing by immunochromatogrphy (ICT) to detect presence of antibody against HIV antigen. Result: Six samples were positive for presence of HIV-Abs (5-positive for HIV-1 and 1 positive for HIV-2) comprising 8% while (69) samples (92%) were negative for HIV.ELISA (Fourth generation ELISA) was done on the six positive ICT result as confirmatory test revealed presence of strong positive result indicating presence of HIV-Ab. Conclusion: Results of studying parameters of socioeconomic factors affecting. HIV prevalence indicates positive correlation showing high infection rateIn the age group (31-40years), in males (8%) more than females, all males were Christian, and maybe uncircumcised, in the same time uneducated or just at primary level.
Serum Level of Lead, Zinc, Cadmium, Copper and Chromium among Occupationally Exposed Automotive Workers in Benin City (Published)
Aim: This study is aimed at assessing the level of exposure to lead, cadmium, chromium, zinc and copper among occupationally exposed automobile repair workers and create awareness for proper safety measures.Methodology: A total of 94 auto repair workers comprising battery recyclers (n = 14), motor mechanics (n =59) and spray painters (n = 21), selected from various auto repair workshops in Benin City and 50 unexposed controls participated in the study. Blood samples were collected and analysis for blood levels of lead, chromium, cadmium, copper and zinc were done using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: Data indicated significantly (p < 0.001) greater levels of lead, cadmium, chromium, zinc and copper in auto mechanics, spray painters and battery recyclers compared with the non-exposed controls. In contrast, the blood levels of these metals did not differ when compared among the auto repair workers. Conclusion: The significantly greater levels of lead, cadmium, chromium, zinc and copper in auto workers clearly demonstrates that auto repair workers are more likely to be exposed to toxicity of metals due to their occupational activities than the general population. This calls for adequate maintenance of safety measures and hygiene by auto repair workers to protect themselves from harmful effects of automobile workshop environment.
Antimalarial drug toxicity is viewed different, depending on if the clinical indication is for treatment or prophylaxis. In drug therapy of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, which has a high mortality if untreated, a greater risk of adverse reactions to antimalarial medication is inevitable. The effect of the administration of Artesunate on the liver of wistar rats was studied. Study design was experimental and deployed clinical laboratory assessments. Four groups of wistar rats, each of five animals weighing between 100-150 g were used. Group 1 served as the control and was administered normal feed and drinking water. Group 2, 3 and 4 received 0.24mg/kg, 0.34mg/kg and 76mg/kg body weight Artesunate daily respectively, orally for four weeks. Serum Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) activities and Bilirubin were determined at the end of the treatment. Results showed that in group 3 and 4, there was a significant increase in serum AST and ALT and a significant decrease in serum ALP. The results also showed that at mild doses (0.24mg/kg and 0.34mg/kg), Artesunate promoted weight gain and at highest dose (76mg/kg), it appeared to result in reduced percentage weight gain suggesting perhaps that high doses were toxic. It is concluded, that administration of high doses of Artesunate by the oral route produced considerable damage to the liver.
In Vivo Antiplasmodial and Effects of Subchronic Administration of Trichilia Emetica Leaves Extracts (Published)
Objective: The leave extracts of Trichilia emetica were investigated for antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium berghei infections in mice and chronic dose effects of the methanolic extract were also studied. Methods: The plant leaves were successively extracted into three (3) extract forms (Hexane, ethylacetate and methanolic extracts). Plasmodium berghei (NK 65 Chloroquine sensitive strain) was inoculated in to twenty mice assigned for 5 groups of 4 mice each. Group I, II and III were treated with 300mg/Kg bw hexane, ethylacetate and methanol extracts respectively. Group IV with 5mg/kg bw chloroquine phosphate (standard) and group V with 20ml/kg bw normal saline (control). Another set of 40 mice were divided into two groups of twenty each (test and control) and some serum parameters were studies. The test animals were gavaged with 300mg/kg bw extract while controls were given normal saline over a period of 5weeks on alternate days. Histology of the liver, and kidney were carried out. Results: The presence of alkaloids, saponins, pholobatannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides and phenolic compounds have been detected and quantified. T. emetica extracts of hexane and methanol suppressed parasitemia in mice by 79.19 % and 95.83%respectively while ethylacetate extract has no activity. The weight of the test group was on a continuous decrease compare to the control while the reverse was the case in terms of the PCV. Glucose, total proteins, triacylglycerides, ALT and ALP levels all decrease significantly compared to the control group. AST level of the test group was significantly higher compare to the control. Histology revealed no damage to the kidney and liver. Conclusion: Hexane and methanolic extracts of Trichilia emetica have strong efficacy against malaria and a possible mechanism for this efficacy is its ability to lyses erythrocytes.