Tag Archives: Sensory

Quality Evaluation of Cookies Made From Wheat Flour Fortified With Tiger Nut Flour and Date Palm Fruit (Published)

Cookies are baked food that is typically small, flat and sweet. It usually contains flour, sugar and other ingredients. Tiger nut is globally recognized for its nutritional, functional and medicinal properties that are suitable for children, grownups and sport men. However, it is highly underutilized. The inclusion of date palm fruit in the production of cookies from wheat flour fortified with tiger nut flour enhances good sensory attributes and reduces the risk of diabetics associated with consumption of granulated sugar as sweeteners. The samples were formulated as 75%, 15% and 10%; 70%, 20% and 10%; 65%, 20% and 15%; 60%, 15% and 25%; and 50%, 30% and 20% of wheat flour, tiger nut flour and date palm fruit respectively. Pasting properties of composite flour, proximate and microbial analyses of the products were determined. Pasting properties showed that peak viscosity (2093 – 2792) RVU; trough viscosity (1480 – 2031) RVU; breakdown viscosity (434 – 759) RVU; final viscosity (3016 – 3258) RVU; setback viscosity (1210 – 1536) RVU; pasting temperature (68.20 – 71.55)oC; and pasting time (8.77 – 9.31) minutes. Proximate analysis showed that crude protein (11.33 – 11.99)%; crude fat (1.25 – 2.36)%; crude fibre (1.88 – 2.40)%; total ash (1.68 – 1.89)%; moisture content (10.83 – 12.63)%; and carbohydrate (68.48 – 70.89)%. Microbial count of the cookies showed that at week 0, there was no growth both in the nutrient agar plates and in the potato dextrose agar plate. From week 1 to week 3, total viable count in cookies stored at ambient condition was found to be higher than those stored in the refrigeration and freezing condition. However, bacterial count was found to be higher in week 1, 2 and 3 for each storage condition. At p˂0.5 level of significance, there was no significant difference in most sensory attributes considered. Overall acceptability of cookies were rated high between like slightly and like extremely. This is an indication that apart from additional nutritional benefit, organoleptic quality and suitability of the food satisfied consumer’s perception.

Keywords: Flour, Proximate, Quality, Sensory, microbial, pasting

Effect of Plasticizer Concentration on the Sensory, Mechanical and Barrier Properties of Cassava Starch-Mushroom (Pleurotus Pulmonarius) Edible Films (Published)

Edible films were produced from 6g blends of cassava starch (CS) and mushroom from cassava starch and mushroom (Pleurotus pulmonarius) composite flours were prepared using cassava starch flour (CS) and mushroom (MF) ratios of 100:00, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30 and 60:40 CS: MF with glycerol as a plasticizer in varying levels of 0%,  2%, 4%, 6% and 8% using the casting method and the mechanical, barrier and sensory properties were studied. Films were formed in all the suspensions in this study and the addition of plasticizer to these film-forming solutions helped to overcome the brittleness and fragile nature of the unplasticized cassava starch mushroom (Pleurotus pulmonarius) films. Results of the mechanical properties of the CSMF films ranged from 1.27 to 10.11Mpa, 5.09 to 21.71mm and 19.15 to 24.53 MPa respectively. Elongation at break (EAB) increased with glycerol concentration up to 4% and decreased at higher concentrations. Water vapour permeability (WVP) and film solubility (FS) ranged from 6.03 to 9.98 g mm m-2 d-1kPa and 15.76 to 39.79% respectively. There was a general Increase in WVP and FS with the increase in glycerol content and lower mushroom flour inclusion. Film thickness (FT) ranged from 0.15 to 0.44mm. FT decreases with an increase in glycerol concentration. The sensory attributes indicated that the increase in MF substitution resulted in increased opacity and improved flavour with higher acceptability at lower substitution while at higher concentrations (6 and 8%) of glycerol lower sensory scores were observed. However, CSMF 90:10% at 2% glycerol was the most acceptable. Glycerol behaved like a typical plasticizer. Edible films had substantial barrier properties and mechanical strength to withstand stress during handling. Cassava starch and mushroom (P. pulmonarius) based edible films could be used in food packaging and agricultural industries

Citation: Ojo Mofoluwaso Olufunmilola, Igbabul Bibiana Dooshima, Alkali Shian Joseph (2021)Effect Of Plasticizer Concentration on the Sensory, Mechanical and Barrier Properties of Cassava Starch-Mushroom (Pleurotus Pulmonarius) Edible Films, European Journal of Food Science and Technology, Vol.9, No.3, pp.16-34

 

Keywords: Cassava starch, Edible films, Mechanical and Barrier properties., Mushroom (P. pulmonarius) Glycerol, Sensory

Quality Evaluation of Cookies Made From Wheat Flour Fortified With Tiger Nut Flour and Date Palm Fruit (Published)

Cookies are baked food that is typically small, flat and sweet. It usually contains flour, sugar and other ingredients. Tiger nut is globally recognized for its nutritional, functional and medicinal properties that are suitable for children, grownups and sport men. However, it is highly underutilized. The inclusion of date palm fruit in the production of cookies from wheat flour fortified with tiger nut flour enhances good sensory attributes and reduces the risk of diabetics associated with consumption of granulated sugar as sweeteners. The samples were formulated as 75%, 15% and 10%; 70%, 20% and 10%; 65%, 20% and 15%; 60%, 15% and 25%; and 50%, 30% and 20% of wheat flour, tiger nut flour and date palm fruit respectively. Pasting properties of composite flour, proximate and microbial analyses of the products were determined. Pasting properties showed that peak viscosity (2093 – 2792) RVU; trough viscosity (1480 – 2031) RVU; breakdown viscosity (434 – 759) RVU; final viscosity (3016 – 3258) RVU; setback viscosity (1210 – 1536) RVU; pasting temperature (68.20 – 71.55)oC; and pasting time (8.77 – 9.31) minutes. Proximate analysis showed that crude protein (11.33 – 11.99)%; crude fat (1.25 – 2.36)%; crude fibre (1.88 – 2.40)%; total ash (1.68 – 1.89)%; moisture content (10.83 – 12.63)%; and carbohydrate (68.48 – 70.89)%. Microbial count of the cookies showed that at week 0, there was no growth both in the nutrient agar plates and in the potato dextrose agar plate. From week 1 to week 3, total viable count in cookies stored at ambient condition was found to be higher than those stored in the refrigeration and freezing condition. However, bacterial count was found to be higher in week 1, 2 and 3 for each storage condition. At p˂0.5 level of significance, there was no significant difference in most sensory attributes considered. Overall acceptability of cookies were rated high between like slightly and like extremely. This is an indication that apart from additional nutritional benefit, organoleptic quality and suitability of the food satisfied consumer’s perception.

Keywords: Flour, Proximate, Quality, Sensory, microbial, pasting

Effect of Substitution of Soya Beans and Moringa Oleifera Leaf Flour on the Properties of a Traditional Weaning Food (Published)

Traditional weaning foods are made from monotonous cereals which contributes to malnutrition in young children. Fermented millet (FMF), soya beans (SBF)and moringa oleifera leaf flour (MLF) were used to formulate weaning food blends in the ratio FMF:SBF:MLF- sample C (60:35:5), sample D (60:30:10), sample E (60:25:5), sample F (60:20:20) sample A (100 % FMF) was used as control, sample B (FMF(60):SBF(40). These were subjected to proximate, functional and sensory analysis. All analysis were done using standard methods. The result of the proximate analysis indicated that substitution with moringa oleifera leaf flour at (5, 10, 15 and 20) % significantly (p<0.05) increased the Ash, fibre and carbohydrates. Protein and fat content were highest in sample B and lowest in the control. The Samples with MLF decreased with increased substitution levels. Substitution with MLF increased the Water absorption capacity and least gelation concentration from 0.94±0.01 to 1.86±0.01 and 4.00±0.00 to 10.00±0.00 respectively. Bulk density and swelling capacity decreased with increased MLF substitution from 0.68±0.01 to 0.58±0.01 and 3.33±0.01 to 2.82±0.01 respectively. The result of the sensory evaluation showed preference for sample C with 5 % MLF.

Keywords: Functional, Proximate, Sensory, Weaning Food

Effect of fermentation duration on the nutritional and antinutritional content of watermelon seeds and sensory properties of their ogiri products (Published)

The proximate composition and antinutrients of fermented watermelon seeds (24-120h (1-5 days)) as well as the sensory attributes of soup prepared with the condiment (ogiri), produced from the fermented watermelon seeds were determined using standard methods. Protein increased from 11.79% in the fresh sample to 13.77% (96h fermented watermelon seeds) while the ash increased from 4.95% to 5.75% in the same sample. The comparative assessment of the proximate composition of the watermelon ogiri and commercial ogiri (control) showed that the watermelon ogiri had higher protein and fat content, 13.77% and 15.40% respectively than the commercial ogiri (9.98% and 7.96% respectively).  The 96h fermented watermelon seeds had optimum increase in nutrients and was used as a condiment alongside with commercial ogiri from castor oil bean for oha soup preparation, both of which were subjected to sensory evaluation and they differed significantly (P<0.05). However, the control soup was most preferred by the panelists (7.68).

Keywords: Antinutrients, Fermentation, Ogiri, Sensory, Watermelon Seed

Study of Supplemented Yoghurt Production with Different Vegetables: Qualificationally and Sensationally (Published)

Yoghurt is the most popular milk product owing to its particular physical, nutritional, probiotic and organoleptic properties. This study was conducted to prepare vegetables yoghurt fortified with 10 % of different vegetables (fresh cucumber and garlic, cucumber and dried mint leaf, fresh green pepper and dried mint leaf, fried eggplant and garlic, cucumber-garlic and mint leaf, and all mixed vegetables as cocktail), compared with plain yoghurt without any addition. Physicochemical, sensory evaluation and microbiological properties were analyzes to assay the quality of yoghurt products. The total solid, pH and the acidity of vegetable yoghurts supplemented products were increased significantly than plain yoghurt. Statistical analysis showed that yoghurts supplemented with 10% of fried eggplant and garlic, and then cucumber mixed with garlic were more acceptable than others vegetables comparing all quality properties.  Sensory evaluation of the yoghurt products was improved due to supplementation of 10 % of both eggplant and cucumber supplementation. The flavor, texture and consistency, acidity, appearance and the total of the yoghurt products were very good acceptable by the panelists. The period storage of supplemented yoghurt did not affect the quality significantly, which was a good index for producing those healthy dairy products. The microbiological determination of the vegetable yoghurt products was also acceptable and lay within the Iraqi quality standard, due to the increased acidity content of those dairy products. The findings of this study may give an overall idea about manufacturing of vegetables yoghurt supplementing 10% concentration and appropriate technology of vegetable preparation side to side with plain yoghurt.

Keywords: Different Vegetable, Microbial Evaluation, Physicochemical Analysis, Sensory, Yoghurt Supplementation