Effects of Plasticizer Concentration and Mushroom (Pleurotus Pulmonarius) Flour Inclusion on the Sensory, Mechanical and Barrier Properties of Cassava Starch Based Edible Films (Published)
Edible films was produced from 6g blends of cassava starch (CS) and mushroom from cassava starch and mushroom (Pleurotus pulmonarius) composite flours were prepared using cassava starch flour (CS) and mushroom (MF) ratios of 100:00, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30 and 60:40 CS: MF with glycerol as plasticizer in varying levels of 0%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% using the casting method. All the suspension in this study were able to form films and the addition of plasticizer to these film forming solution helped to overcome the brittleness and fragile nature of the unplasticized cassava starch mushroom (Pleurotus pulmonarius) films. The sensory, mechanical and barrier properties were studied. Results of the sensory attributes indicated increase in MF resulted in increased opacity and improved flavour with higher acceptability at lower substitution while at higher concentration (6 and 8%) of glycerol lower sensory scores were observed. However, CSMF 90:10% at 2% glycerol was the most acceptable. Mechanical properties of the CSMF films ranged from 1.27 to 10.11Mpa, 5.09 to 21.71mm and 19.15 to 24.53 MPa respectively. Elongation at break (EAB) increased with glycerol concentration up to 4% and decreased at higher concentration. Water vapour permeability (WVP) and film solubility (FS) ranged from 6.03 to 9.98 g mm m-2 d-1 kPa and 15.76 to 39.79% respectively. There was a general Increase in WVP and FS with increase in glycerol content and lower mushroom flour. Film thickness (FT) ranged from 0.15 to 0.44mm. FT decreases with increase in glycerol concentration. Glycerol behaved like a typical plasticizer. Edible films had substantial barrier properties and mechanical strength to withstand stress during handling. Cassava starch and mushroom (P. pulmonarius) based edible films could be used in food packaging and agricultural industries
Effect of fermentation duration on the nutritional and antinutritional content of watermelon seeds and sensory properties of their ogiri products (Published)
The proximate composition and antinutrients of fermented watermelon seeds (24-120h (1-5 days)) as well as the sensory attributes of soup prepared with the condiment (ogiri), produced from the fermented watermelon seeds were determined using standard methods. Protein increased from 11.79% in the fresh sample to 13.77% (96h fermented watermelon seeds) while the ash increased from 4.95% to 5.75% in the same sample. The comparative assessment of the proximate composition of the watermelon ogiri and commercial ogiri (control) showed that the watermelon ogiri had higher protein and fat content, 13.77% and 15.40% respectively than the commercial ogiri (9.98% and 7.96% respectively). The 96h fermented watermelon seeds had optimum increase in nutrients and was used as a condiment alongside with commercial ogiri from castor oil bean for oha soup preparation, both of which were subjected to sensory evaluation and they differed significantly (P<0.05). However, the control soup was most preferred by the panelists (7.68).
Study of Supplemented Yoghurt Production with Different Vegetables: Qualificationally and Sensationally (Published)
Yoghurt is the most popular milk product owing to its particular physical, nutritional, probiotic and organoleptic properties. This study was conducted to prepare vegetables yoghurt fortified with 10 % of different vegetables (fresh cucumber and garlic, cucumber and dried mint leaf, fresh green pepper and dried mint leaf, fried eggplant and garlic, cucumber-garlic and mint leaf, and all mixed vegetables as cocktail), compared with plain yoghurt without any addition. Physicochemical, sensory evaluation and microbiological properties were analyzes to assay the quality of yoghurt products. The total solid, pH and the acidity of vegetable yoghurts supplemented products were increased significantly than plain yoghurt. Statistical analysis showed that yoghurts supplemented with 10% of fried eggplant and garlic, and then cucumber mixed with garlic were more acceptable than others vegetables comparing all quality properties. Sensory evaluation of the yoghurt products was improved due to supplementation of 10 % of both eggplant and cucumber supplementation. The flavor, texture and consistency, acidity, appearance and the total of the yoghurt products were very good acceptable by the panelists. The period storage of supplemented yoghurt did not affect the quality significantly, which was a good index for producing those healthy dairy products. The microbiological determination of the vegetable yoghurt products was also acceptable and lay within the Iraqi quality standard, due to the increased acidity content of those dairy products. The findings of this study may give an overall idea about manufacturing of vegetables yoghurt supplementing 10% concentration and appropriate technology of vegetable preparation side to side with plain yoghurt.