Tag Archives: Sensory Properties

Effect of Treatments on the Tannin Content and Quality Assessment of Cashew Apple Juice and the Kernel (Published)

Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) apple juice was processed using pasteurized apple (PA), pressure treated apple (PTA), gelatine treated apple (GTA), carbonate treated apple (CTA), salt treated apple (STA), hot water treated apple (HWTA) and unpasteurized apple (UPA) was used as the control sample. Cashew kernels were also processed using oil frying and oven drying techniques and the imported cashew kernel served as the control. The effect of these treatments and techniques on the physical, chemical, tannin and sensory properties were studied. The result of the juice samples showed pH range of 4.06 – 7.28 (HWTA and CTA), colour 3.08EBC – 7.50EBC (CTA and GTA), total solid 12.76 – 24.83% (PA and GTA), titratable acidity 0.03 – 1.97% (CTA and STA), crude protein 0.22 – 8.52% (STA, HWTA and GTA), ash 0.24 – 3.72% (STA and CTA), carbohydrate 6.17 – 8.62% (GTA and STA) and tannin 0.07 – 2.84mg/100ml (HWTA and PA), respectively. Hot water treatment significantly reduced the tannin content of the juice by 96.20%. HWTA juice was observed to maintain significantly high (p<0.05) sensory attributes of colour, taste, flavour, desirability and general acceptability (4.65, 4.21, 3.60, 4.27 and 4.73, respectively) and effectively reduced the astringency of the juice with the score of 2.53. Oil frying and oven drying techniques significantly did not affect all the chemical properties of the produced cashew kernel compare to the imported sample. The reduction of tannin in the cashew kernel was achieved using oil frying technique as regards to the imported sample by 0.1%. There was no significant difference (p<0.05) in all the sensory attributes between the oil fried and imported cashew kernels. From the analysis, the reduction of tannin content in cashew apple juice and cashew kernel was achieved by immersing the apple in hot water before juice expression and by frying the kernels in hot oil before the remover of tasta, respectively and still maintain the physical, chemical and sensory properties of the products.

Keywords: Cashew Apple, Cashew Kernel, Chemical., Juice, Physical, Sensory Properties

The Compositional and Mineral Content of Granola (Breakfast cereal), Produced from Different locally available cereal Grains (Published)

The consumption of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal contributes significantly to the dietary intake of a number of nutrients. However the knowledge of the mineral content of such breakfast cereal is limited. The present study was aimed to evaluate the proximate, mineral and sensory characteristics of the new granola products. Six different ready-to-eat breakfast cereals were produced from different locally available and cheap cereal grains such as maize (white, yellow and popping corn varieties), guinea corn and millet. Oat was used as control and samples were analyzed using standard methods. Sensory analysis showed that there was significant difference in their color, taste, texture and overall acceptability, while flavor showed no significant difference (p≥0.05) in all the samples. Oat based granola (control) had the highest values for fat, protein and energy which were significantly different from the other samples, but however lower in moisture content, fiber and total available carbohydrate. Yellow maize granola had the lowest protein content as well as the highest value for carbohydrate with the control showing the reverse trend. The result also showed that the control sample A, had the lowest value for fiber and the highest energy while the white maize granola which had the highest fiber had the least energy in kcal/g. A total of eight essential minerals associated with cereal grains were evaluated, namely calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, phosphorus, iron copper and zinc. The yellow maize granola (sample C) was significantly high (p≤0.05) in calcium, iron and copper but low in magnesium, sodium and zinc, while the millet based granola (sample F) was significantly (p≤0.05) high in potassium and zinc.  Magnesium and phosphorus were highest in the guinea corn based granola (sample E). The ready to eat breakfast granola have shown from the study to contribute significant amount per/100g of consumption of the important minerals particularly iron and magnesium. This study also showed that the production of granola from other locally available grains gave acceptable products without altering its properties.

Keywords: Cereals, Composition, Sensory Properties, breakfast, granola, mineral elements

Effect of Treatments on the Tannin Content and Quality Assessment of Cashew Apple Juice and the Kernel (Published)

Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) apple juice was processed using pasteurized apple (PA), pressure treated apple (PTA), gelatine treated apple (GTA), carbonate treated apple (CTA), salt treated apple (STA), hot water treated apple (HWTA) and unpasteurized apple (UPA) was used as the control sample. Cashew kernels were also processed using oil frying and oven drying techniques and the imported cashew kernel served as the control. The effect of these treatments and techniques on the physical, chemical, tannin and sensory properties were studied. The result of the juice samples showed pH range of 4.06 – 7.28 (HWTA and CTA), colour 3.08EBC – 7.50EBC (CTA and GTA), total solid 12.76 – 24.83% (PA and GTA), titratable acidity 0.03 – 1.97% (CTA and STA), crude protein 0.22 – 8.52% (STA, HWTA and GTA), ash 0.24 – 3.72% (STA and CTA), carbohydrate 6.17 – 8.62% (GTA and STA) and tannin 0.07 – 2.84mg/100ml (HWTA and PA), respectively. Hot water treatment significantly reduced the tannin content of the juice by 96.20%. HWTA juice was observed to maintain significantly high (p<0.05) sensory attributes of colour, taste, flavour, desirability and general acceptability (4.65, 4.21, 3.60, 4.27 and 4.73, respectively) and effectively reduced the astringency of the juice with the score of 2.53. Oil frying and oven drying techniques significantly did not affect all the chemical properties of the produced cashew kernel compare to the imported sample. The reduction of tannin in the cashew kernel was achieved using oil frying technique as regards to the imported sample by 0.1%. There was no significant difference (p<0.05) in all the sensory attributes between the oil fried and imported cashew kernels. From the analysis, the reduction of tannin content in cashew apple juice and cashew kernel was achieved by immersing the apple in hot water before juice expression and by frying the kernels in hot oil before the remover of tasta, respectively and still maintain the physical, chemical and sensory properties of the products.

Keywords: Cashew Apple, Cashew Kernel, Chemical., Juice, Physical, Sensory Properties