This paper will investigate the subtle and sensitive questioning of Women’s condition in Pakistan in Farooqi’s novel, The Story of a Widow. Farooqi’s title is misleading and leads one to think that this book too will portray the subjugated position of women in a patriarchal society but on closer investigation it is seen that Farooqi points towards the hindering and cowardly mindset of women in giving and supporting independence to their own kind. The portrait of the dead husband symbolizes the patriarchal presence. It is important to see that the judgmental attitude of the man is perceived by the wife even when he is no more. This is indicative of how powerfully the society is entrenched in the myth that man is wiser and more capable than the woman and therefore must remain in the driving seat. Despite the complete physical absence of Akbar Ali, Mona’s deceased husband, he continues to figure prominently in her thoughts. What is worth appreciating is the resilience of Mona with which she continues to defy and rise above the looks of rebuke and chastisement that Akbar Ali’s portrait continues to impart. After widowhood, Mona gains money as well as the liberty to make her own decisions yet she is, throughout the novel, cowed down by her sister and her daughters, relations that one would otherwise expect to be supportive and understanding. Through the struggle of Mona, Farooqi highlights the importance of self-growth and self –autonomy which can only be obtained by making ones own decisions, shouldering the burden of error, living through agony and finally coming out not triumphant but stronger and wiser i.e like the men.
Sensitivity Analysis of Lassa fever Model (Published)
A Mathematical Model was developed for the spread and control of Lassa Lever. Existence and stability were analysed for disease free equilibrium. Key to our analysis is the basic reproductive number which is an important threshold for disease control. Reasonable sets of values for the parameter in the model were compiled, and sensitivity analysis indices of around the baseline parameter value were computed, which shows that the most sensitive parameter to is human birth rate , followed by condom efficacy and compliance. Further, the numerical computation of gave a value of 0.129, finally, numerical simulations were obtained that illustrates the effects of the control parameters on the various compartments of the model.
Parameter Sensitivity and Elasticity Analysis of a Mathematical Model for Non–Homogenous Population Density of a Weed Species (Published)
In this work, a stage-structured model for non- homogenous population density of an annual weed is analysed for parameter sensitivity and elasticity. The steady state solution of the model is obtained. In order to determine the contribution of identified parameters to the model steady state, the sensitivity and elasticity analyses are performed using matrix calculus approach. The result of the sensitivity analysis shows that the steady state is very responsive to change in established seedling survival rate (e). While, elasticity analysis indicates that, both established and matured weeds steady-state densities are equally affected by small additive changes in maturity rate (m) and establishment rate (e). Besides, seed bank seed density is most sensitive to small additive change in seed production (b) as compared to weed maturity rate (m). Hence, we conclude that increase in the survival and maturity rates possibly may lead to an increase in weed population density.
Comparative Studies of the Antimicrobial Activities of Different Chewing Sticks on Some Selected Pathogenic Microorganisms (Review Completed - Accepted)
The crude aqueous and methanol extract of the chewing sticks were assessed for antimicrobial activity and the active principles present in them. The antimicrobial activities of the methanol and aqueous extract of ten (10) different types of chewing sticks were determined against a wide variety of pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The extract was tested against bacteria likeStapylococcusaureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, βeta. haemolytic streptococcus, Bacillus subtilisATCC 6633, ShigellaflexneriATCC 12022, SerratiamarscenceATCC 39006, EnterobacteraerogensATCC 13045, Proteus mirabilisATCC 2598, and fungi such as Candida albicans, Aspergillusflavus, Aspergillusniger, and Aspergillusfumigatus. The methanol crude extract of the chewing sticks have greater zone of inhibition compare with the aqueous extracts. All plants tested displayed antimicrobial activityes against one or more of the tested organisms but Fagarazanthoxyloidesshows greater antibacterial against Escherichia coli 40mm, Stapylococcusaureus34mm, while Disthemonanthusbenthamianusdisplayed the highest antifungal activity against Candida albican with 11mm. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of each active values were as well determined using agar well diffusion method. The chewing sticks contain antimicrobial agents though the concentration and composition of the bioactive substances may differ amongst the plants.The result showed that the extract of the plants also possessed some active principles such as tannin, phenol, steroid, saponin, alkaloid, anthraquinones. Thus, the chewing sticks extract may serve as sources for chemotherapeutic agents for the management of Orofacial infections caused by broad spectrum pathogenic organisms and could also be suitable for better dental care. It is concluded that methanol extract and aqueous extract of the chewing sticks exhibited significant amount of antimicrobial and trace amount of antifungal.