Tag Archives: semantic

Understanding the semantic distance in adolescent’s bilinguals. (Published)

The words in the lexicon are assumed to be arranged in networks or semantic fields. This view is the basis for priming experiments. The priming experiments believe that when the target word is preceded by a semantically related word, the word is activated earlier when compared to conditions where the word occurs in isolation or it is preceded by a semantically unrelated word. This view is universally related but the magnitude of semantic relationship may not be the same for all kinds of words. A word in the lexicon can be related to other words by four types of relationships namely super ordinate, derivative, category coordinate and derivative. The aim of the study was to study the semantic organisation in adolescent, young and older adults. A total of 200 participants were considered for the study. A paper-pencil test was administered on these participants, where they were asked to encircle the word which would go well with the target word.  The findings of the study showed that the semantic organisation did not vary much between the three groups. Associative semantic ordinate was proximally related to the target word, while super ordinates were distally related to the target word.

Citation: Abdullah S A A F Alfarhan , Yousef H S M M Alshammari  and Fares HA Awadh (2022)   Understanding the semantic distance in adolescent’s bilinguals. British Journal of Education, Vol.10., Issue 9, pp. 51-58,

Keywords: Distance, adolescent’s bilinguals, fields, semantic

Robinson’s diagram as a tool for dealing with Skolem’s criticism of formal language (Published)

In this paper, I wish to present Robinson’s diagram as an attempt to overcome the problem of   formal language, which was indicated in 1922 by Skölem as the “relativity of set-theoretical notions”. Robinson’s diagram is a symbolic representation of information. The diagram of a mathematical structure M is the set of all elementary sentences of one of the forms j or ¬j which hold in M, where j = R(a1,….,an) for any R, a1,….,an which denotes relations of individuals a1,….,an, in M. The diagram is syntactic and semantic at the same time. Using the diagram with the philosophical position that links semantics and syntactic it is possible to find the unique model that is described by a set of axioms.

Citation: Talia Leven (2021) Robinson’s diagram as a tool for dealing with Skolem’s criticism of formal language, European Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology, Vol.9, No.4, pp.28-41


Keywords: Skolem, empirical prime model, formal language, paradox, semantic, syntactic perspective