Tag Archives: Self-reliance

An Appraisal on the Readiness of Secondary Schools toward the Attainment of Self-Reliance through Agricultural Science Education in North East Nigeria (Published)

This paper examined the readiness of secondary schools toward the attainment of self-reliance through agricultural science education. Survey research design was adopted for this study. The population of the study comprises of all SSIII students and teachers of agricultural science in the nine selected secondary schools in the north eastern part of Nigeria. Data was collected using researcher’s developed questionnaire on four Linkert scale. The data collected was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Some of the major findings of this research was; Nigerian agricultural science curriculum is appropriate in terms of goal and content in making students to be self-reliant after graduation, facilities and equipment for the teaching of Agric science are not adequate in meeting the need of students. Some recommendations were made; funds should be made available for the purchase of equipment for the teaching of practical, awareness should be created to students on the importance of Agric science in making them self-reliant.  

Citation: Alhamdu Ishaya and Dahiru Lamaran Bello (2022) An Appraisal on the Readiness of Secondary Schools toward the Attainment of Self-Reliance through Agricultural Science Education in North East Nigeria,,


Keywords: Agricultural Science, Appraisal, Education, North East Nigeria, Secondary Schools, Self-reliance, readiness

Performance Evaluation of Skills Acquisition for Self- Reliance among Graduates of Technical Colleges in Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)

Citation: Alfred Denis Oyama and God’sdesire Alfred Oyama (2022)  Performance Evaluation of Skills Acquisition for Self- Reliance among Graduates of Technical Colleges in Cross River State, Nigeria, International Journal of Vocational and Technical Education Research, Vol. 8, No.1 pp.1-10

Abstract: This study sought to evaluate skills acquisition for self-reliance among graduates of technical colleges in Cross River State, Nigeria. Relevant literatures to the variable of the study was critically examined. Descriptive research design was adopted for this study. A sample of 241graduates was used for the study. The sampling technique adopted for study was accidental and snowball sampling technique. The main instrument used for the collection of data was the questionnaire with reliability coefficient ranging from .84, .63 and 63 and data raised were analyzed using the simple percentage analysis. The results obtained showed a significant positive influence of skills acquisition for self-reliance among graduates of technical colleges in Cross River State, Nigeria. Based on the findings of the study, it was recommended that government should reposition all the technical colleges in Cross River State, Nigeria and Products of technical colleges should be regularly evaluated to provide immediate feedback and spot areas that will require modification in order to continue to sustain and promote the programme. Finally, the study suggested that a replication of this study should be carried out again on the variables that were not previously investigated.

Keywords: Cross River State, Nigeria, Self-reliance, Skills Acquisition, Technical Education, graduates

Technical, Vocational Education and Training (TVET): Tool for Combating Insecurity in Nigeria (Published)

In line with UNESCO’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) 1 and 10 which are to eradicate poverty and reduce inequality by 2030. Inclusive Technical, Vocational Education and Training (TVET) has been observed as one of the ways to achieve participation and inclusion of most Nigerians in legal and meaningful profit-oriented activities to earn their living, eradicate poverty and combat insecurity. TVET is a training programme which equips its recipients with the required skills needed within or for a particular job for self reliance. It is an avenue that could be used to take many people out of poverty and thereby reduce social vices and insecurity in Nigeria. TVET facilitates the advancement or creation of legal business or profit oriented activities. Considering the objectives of TVET in Nigeria, the article therefore identifies and discusses different ways through which inclusive TVET could be implemented to combat insecurity in Nigeria. Inclusive TVET as discussed in this article entails taking into cognizance the unemployed youths, school drop outs, physically challenged, marginalized groups, rural dwellers and retirees and equipping them with the necessary skills needed for self reliance. The article stresses that poverty, inequality and insecurity could be reduced in Nigeria, if the suggested ways of implementing inclusive TVET in this article are adopted and consistently practiced. It recommends among others that, varying modes of TVET delivery options should be accessible to every Nigerian so as to equip them with the necessary skills needed for self reliance in order to enhance wealth creation and reduce poverty, inequality and insecurity in Nigeria.

Keywords: Inclusive TVET, Inequality, Insecurity, Poverty Reduction, Self-reliance

The Effect of Surveillance and Evaluation Expectation on the Creativity of Primary School Pupils (Published)

Creativity seems to be one of the determinants of perpetuation of species. Humans need to invent creative ways for dealing with the challenges of surviving in a continuously evolving planet. Creativity also has great implications for a nation’s development. Nurturing and enhancing creativity is a major concern for educators. This study focusses on finding the effect of surveillance and Evaluation, two factors identified as killers of creativity; on the creativity of primary school pupils. Piaget’s theory of creativity and Vygotsky’s theory of creativity were used to explain the possible relationships in the study. The research design is the post-test control group quasi experimental design. Thirty-five children from two intact classes were purposively selected for the study. Four research questions were asked and two hypothesis formulated for the study. Data was collected from creative arts classwork of the pupils and analysed using the Independent population t-test. Results revealed a significant effect of both surveillance and evaluation expectation on the creativity of primary school pupils. Recommendations were made.

Keywords: Creativity, Evaluation, Innovation, Self-reliance, Surveillance

Assessment of Instructional Methods Adopted By Teachers of Agricultural Science in Secondary Schools for Enhanced Skill Acquisition for Self-Reliance in Enugu State, Nigeria (Published)

This paper assessed the instructional methods adopted by teachers of agricultural science in secondary schools for enhanced skill acquisition for self-reliance in Enugu State. Two research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. A structured questionnaire made up of 28 items was used to elicit responses from 122 respondents comprising of 90 teachers of agricultural science teaching in schools located in urban and 32 teachers, teaching in schools in rural areas. The instrument was face validated by three experts. The reliability of the instrument was determined using Cronbach alpha reliability coefficient. A reliability index of 0.91 was obtained. Mean with standard deviation was used to answer the research questions, whilet-test was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The results of the study showed that teachers used demonstration, action research method, individual teaching method, field experience (farm) teaching, field trip methods of teacher, etc to a great extent, for enhanced skills acquisition for self-reliance in Enugu State. It was found that teachers do not integrate modern technologies in teaching agricultural science in secondary schools in Enugu State of Nigeria. Based on the findings, it was recommended among others that; teachers should be retrained in the use of modern technologies in agricultural instructional delivery.

Keywords: Assessment Instructional Methods, Self-reliance, Skills Acquisition


The quest for the third world nations to become one of the 20 economic power nations of the world by the year 2020 sparked the need to institutionalize and enhance qualitative education at all levels of their education system. The 8 point MDG goals of the United Nation (UN) can only be attained in a nation that has quality education base that is affordable and accessible to her citizenry without any exception. In the present jet age, qualitative education is enhanced through information communication technologies (ICTs). ICTs are central to the creation of diversified and functional quality education system; creation of emerging global knowledge based economy and play an important role in promoting sustainable development aimed at achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). This paper attempts to explore the importance of qualitative education through ICT in attaining the MDGs target of the UN in the areas of overall empowerment of` the populace to become self-sufficient and self-reliance, reduce poverty and hunger, gender equality and women empowerment, health and environmental stability. The factors that hinder quality education were also looked into. The paper also made recommendation on the way forward to enhancing quality education and the attainment of MDGs and concluded that unless a qualitative and functional education system built around the state of the arts in ICTs is institutionalized the quest to attain the MDGs and become one of the economic powers of the world by the year 2020 will definitely be a mirage.

Keywords: Catalyst and MDGs., Self-reliance, Self-sufficient, qualitative

Curbing Graduate Unemployment in Nigeria: Case of Cross River State. (Review Completed - Accepted)

The plum arising from Nigeria’s large oil-cash receipts has informed a neglect of Agriculture, Skill/Innovation and Entrepreneurship which would evolve an industrial state with the capacity to absorb her teeming youth population. Worse still, the country’s education system is tailored along lines that produce graduates lacking requisite mental infrastructure and experience and therefore making them misfits in the economy. The paper explores ways of curbing Nigeria’s unemployment dilemma, emphasizing the educationist point of view; we specifically investigated the proximate causes of graduate unemployment in Nigeria using Cross River State as our case study. Random sampling procedures are adopted to survey six Local Government Areas across the three senatorial districts in the state. Results reveal an inverse relationship between skill acquisition/innovation, entrepreneurship, economic diversification and unemployment. It is recommended that public policy should emphasize technical/vocational education leading to self-reliance and self-employment, innovation and entrepreneurship, while effort should be made to reduce corruption and institutional bottlenecks at all levels of government.

Keywords: Entrepreneurship, Self-reliance, Technical Education, Unemployment