Soft Skills Preparation as Panacea for Self-Employment for Tvet Technician Graduates in Kenya (Published)
The main aim of the paper was to assess how effect of soft skills on self-employment among Technical and Vocational Education and Training technician graduates in Kenya. The specific soft skills investigated in this study were practice time management, solve problems, work independently, interpersonal skills, communication skills, decision making skill, creativity/innovations and adaptability on self-employment among TVET graduates. This study was based on pragmatic research paradigm using embedded research design. The study targeted 527 technician graduate from TVET institutions in Uasin Gishu county Kenya. Simple random was used to select 320 sample size. Quantitative data analysis was done using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. The interview transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Multiple Regression analysis was done to test hypothesis. Findings showed that TVET institutions did not inculcate soft skills content required for survival in self-employment. The generic skills tested were ranked from highly perceived as good to the least good: time management, ability to solve problems, ability to work autonomously, interpersonal skills, communication skills, decision making, creativity and innovative skills, and adaptability. However, despite time management being ranked the highest it had no effect on self-employment. Regression results revealed that ability to solve problems, ability to work independently, interpersonal skills, adaptability and creativity and innovations have a positive and significant effect on self-employment.
Entrepreneurial Competencies Needed By Electrical/Electronic Graduates of Technology Education for Self-Employment in Enugu State (Published)
The objective of this study is to determine the entrepreneurial competencies required by electrical/electronics technology education graduates for self-employment in Enugu State. The study was necessitated because of the prevailing issue of unemployment among graduates of higher institutions which has become a thing of worry for all and sundry. Three purposes of the study with corresponding three research questions and a null hypothesis guided the study. A survey research design was used for the study. Population was 185 graduates of electrical/electronics (tech) education which comprises of 118 government employed and 67 self-employed graduates of the same programme in Enugu State. The instrument for data collection was questionnaire meticulously structured by the researcher which was made up of three sections according to the three research questions of the study. The questionnaire has a total number of 41 item statements structured in four point response categories of very highly needed, highly needed, slightly needed, and not needed with weighting values of 4, 3, 2 and 1 respectively. 185 copies of the questionnaire were administered to the respondents and collected back by the researcher. Mean with standard deviation was used to answer the three research questions of the study while t-test was used to test the null hypothesis at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study showed that ability to accommodate and plan for changes in technology among others are the managerial competencies needed for self-employment while skills to recitify faults among other findings are the technical/ICT competencies needed by graduates of electrical/electronics (tech) education for self-employment. Also, it was found that ability to take wise decisions based on the available facts and being honest to customers and employers among others are interpersonal competencies needed by the graduates for self-employment. Based on the findings of the study, recommendations were made which include, that education authorities and the government at all levels should create enough awareness about entrepreneurship education for onward eradication of the ailing problems of unemployment and abject poverty that abound in the country.
The main purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of academic factors on graduate employability in Nigeria, a case study of Calabar, Cross River State. To achieve this objective, two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. The ex-post facto research design was adopted for the study. An accidental sampling technique was used in the selection of the samples. A total of 150 respondents were used for the study. The major instrument for data collection was a four-point Likert scale questionnaire titled Academic Factors and Graduate Employability Questionnaire (AFGEQ). It was designed by the researcher with the aid of five research experts to establish its validity and reliability. The split-half method of reliability was used to test the reliability. Pearson product moment correlation coefficient and Spearman Brown Prophesy Formula coefficient derived after correlating the outcomes were 0.789 and .882 respectively. Data collected was subjected to statistical test at 0.05 level of significance. The hypotheses were analysed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The result of the analyses showed that academic discipline significantly influences graduate employability while academic achievement does not significantly influence graduate employability. Based on these findings, it was recommended among others, that the curriculum should reformed and made universal to provide students of higher institutions with the requirements of contemporary labour market. It was also recommended that there should be a de-emphasis on certificate education in place of skill-oriented training.
Attitudes of Undergraduate Students towards Self-Employment in Ethiopian Public Universities (Published)
With the rapid population growth and expansion of higher learning institutions unemployment of university graduates is a major socio- economic problem in Ethiopia. The main purpose of this paper is therefore, to investigate the attitude of Ethiopia public university undergraduate graduating class students towards self-employment. The population was composed of graduating class students of one government universities in Ethiopia. The data was collected through questionnaire from randomly selected 80 students of Assosa University. The data obtained through questionnaire was statistically analyzed through statistical package for social science (SPSS) version 20. The research result reveals that significant number of graduating class students’ job preference right after graduation was government or private employment and majority of students do not have short- term self-employment plan in the foreseeable future after graduation. Therefore, it’s advised that universities entrepreneurship course should focus practically on development of competencies related to entrepreneurship and cultural awareness.
A CRITICAL APPRAISAL OF ADEQUACY OF CONTENTS OF EDE CURRICULUM OF POLYTECHNIC EDUCATION TOWARDS MEETING ENTREPRENEURIAL SKILLS OF OTM GRADUATES (Published)
This study appraised the adequacy of the contents of EDE curriculum of polytechnic education towards meeting entrepreneurship skills of OTM graduates. The study utilized survey research. Research question was raised for the study. An instrument which consisted of 28 items was administered on 30 respondents who taught EDE courses in the Delta State Polytechnics. The data obtained in the study were analyzed using the mean (x ̅ ) statistics. The results derived from the study revealed that the contents of EDE courses are adequate in scope and coverage towards meeting entrepreneurial skills of the OTM graduates for self-employment and employers of labour. It was recommended that EDE curriculum should be revised and reviewed every five years by practising practitioners in collaboration with industries so as to meet the needs, interests and aspirations OTM graduates and the society
STRATEGIES FOR REVITALIZING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION IN TECHNICAL, VOCATIONAL EDUCATION AND TRAINING (TVET) TO ENHANCE SELF-EMPLOYMENT IN NIGERIA (Published)
The study was carried out to determine strategies for revitalizing the implementation of entrepreneurship education in Technical, Vocational Education and Training (TVET) to enhance self-employment in Nigeria. The study adopted a survey research design. Three research questions were formulated to guide the study. The population was made up of 61 Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) administrators and 96 entrepreneurs in Small and Medium Enterprises SMEs in the geo-political zones covered by the study. The instrument was face-validated by five TVET experts in University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Cronbach Alpha was used to establish the reliability and a reliability coefficient of 0.85 was obtained. Mean and standard deviation were used to analyse the data collected. The study found strategies for revitalizing the implementation of entrepreneurship education in TVET as well as the basic entrepreneurship skills for self-employment and the challenges of revitalizing entrepreneurship education implementation in Nigeria. It was recommended that government should create an enabling environment for smooth running of the laudable entrepreneurship education programme Teachers in TVET should adapt to changes by making themselves available for training and re- training on the nitty-gritty of entrepreneurship education
Strategies for Empowering Individuals for Self-employment through Technical, Vocational Education and Training (TVET) in Nigeria. (Published)
The study was carried out to determine the strategies that can be employed to empower individuals for self-employment through Technical, Vocational Education and Training (TVET) in Nigeria. The study adopted a survey research design. Three research questions were formulated to guide the study. The population was made up of 54 technical teachers and 73 technical instructors in the technical colleges and skill acquisition centres in the zones covered by the study. The instrument was face-validated by five TVET experts in University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Cronbach Alpha was used to establish the reliability and a reliability coefficient of 0.81 was obtained. Mean and standard deviation were used to analyse the data collected. The strategies determined are agreed upon as empowerment strategies as well as the training facilities and challenges of TVET in empowering individuals for self-employment. It was recommended that public/private partnership should be encouraged in the funding and management of TVET to empower individuals for self-employment.