Tag Archives: Security

Improving Social Security of Public Space by Emphasizing To Light Factor (Case Study- Historical Fabric of Yazd, Iran) (Published)

Yazd city is the first adobe and the second historical city in the world. Placement of valuable historical texture of this city in a circle of worn out context has caused the Gradual burial of social, economic, skeletal and functional life especially in the public spaces of historical core of town. In addition, the expansion of urban crime and increasing social vulnerability in the region reduced the high value of this texture and has faced the valuable historical public spaces with matters like security reduction, street harassment and reputation of insecurity that makes the most attractive tourist area of Yazd not to have a worthy attention especially to the citizens. One of the fundamental objectives of the public spaces of the city design, maintain security and tranquility that is achieved through the expansion of a physical security system. On this basis we must make these spaces in a way that contains sufficient capacity of security for the presence of all social groups. Within the scope of the historical areas that are valuable heritage of the past, the design should be conducted very cautiously. So this research in a manner of descriptive -analysis examine the impact of skeletal features of public spaces to create the local security and Environmental comfort. And address with a definition of secure spaces and its position in city of Yazd and exciting crimes in the historical core Centre of it (Fahadan neighborhood). And among the physical environmental factors it considers the impact of light factor in preventing the urban crimes and examines the rate of its dependency with security and insecurity. Finally, in order to increase security, and using the obtained data, some solutions are offered in accordance with special historical and value features of Fahadan.

Keywords: Fahadan-Yazd, Secure urban space, Security, skeletal physical features, urban crime


Personal information or personally identifiable data is a subject that people have become aware of the need to protect. And the challenge of legislating for data protection in today’s world is that which many nations have taken seriously. Nigeria as a developing nation appears not to be left out of this as the NITDA has released a set of guidelines in this regard as a means to offer some protection. This article examines legislations on the Nigerian landscape that resemble data protection legislation like the Official Secrets Act, the Freedom of Information Act and the most recent NITDA Draft Guidelines for data protection with a view to show the adequacy or otherwise. The guidelines were examined in some detail. The paper summarily compares the present landscape with the European Union standard and concludes that Nigeria does not have adequate data protection legislation. The paper concludes that strong legislation is desirable to protect personal data in Nigeria.

Keywords: Data protection, Guidelines, Legislation, Security, cyberspace


Corruption is endemic social problem in Nigerian society; it is particularly objectionable in Nigeria Police Force. This study x-ray prevalence and consequences of corruption in Nigeria Police Force. It predominantly utilized secondary data. This study has identified that, in Nigeria, the police force has become an epitome of all multi corrupt and fraudulent schemes which constitute a stumbling block to the effective administration of justice and efficient maintenance of law and order in Nigeria and have soiled the image of the force. Thus, the study recommends fundamental restructuring, reorganization, total war against police graft to re-invent a new image for the police and professionalization through further training and re-education in the force which would hopefully launch the Nigerian Police Force on the positive side of history.

Keywords: Corruption, Justice, Law enforcement, Nigeria Police Force, Police, Security, Social problem


An independent mathematical structure was developed for the computation of the voting powers of United Nations Security Council members using the Shapley value concept, cooperative games and deft constructions of coalition sets. The results, obtained through Microsoft Excel implementations show that each permanent member has more than ten times as much voting clout as all ten nonpermanent members put together. A sensitivity analysis-based theorem was formulated to address this unacceptable unwholesome lopsidedness in voting powers while preserving the veto status of permanent members.Finally the paper exploited the Shapley value concept to obtain mathematical formulations and representations of voting powers of the members subject to any resolution passing threshold of votes supported by at least a partial coalition of Permanent representatives. The solution expressions can be used to obtain various levels of voting powers by appropriate adjustments of the parameters, thus giving prescriptions for more equitable distribution of voting powers.

Keywords: Coalition, Council, Power, Security, Shapley, Voting


Economic security being an ingredient for growth and development, makes no sense if job creation is not an outcome. Hence, this study examined the interplay of entrepreneurship education and urgent social intervention in order to reduce unemployment incidence in Nigeria. This simple descriptive survey design study provided a baseline information for policy-management on education in order to enhance productivity of citizens in Nigeria. Secondary data from National Bureau of Statistics and other data sources were obtained to answer four research questions raised for the study. Data analysis was effected with sample descriptive statistics and tables. Results obtained revealed: high rate of unemployment (across education levels and age groups), low level of entrepreneurship education, high prospects of entrepreneurship education in poverty alleviation and increase employment opportunities; and a tripatriate government intervention in their policies and programmes in order to create employment opportunities for citizens. Therefore, it was recommended that policymakers should emphasize entrepreneurship education at all levels of education while government should invest more on public goods for job opportunities in Nigeria.

Keywords: Education, Entrepreneurship, Intervention, Security, Unemployment

A Principal Component Analysis based assessment of the factors influencing online shopping in Mauritius: Binary Regression Modelling (Review Completed - Accepted)

In our modern world, the intensive use of internet has imposed new lifestyles and encouraged new behaviour amongst many across the globe. With the development in Internet technologies, the emergence of online shopping has altered the way businesses operate. While many of them have embraced this platform to present their offerings, many customers on the other hand, are finding it more cost-effective and convenient to carry out their transactions online. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to refine our understanding on consumers’ attitudes, perception and behaviour towards online shopping in a Mauritian context.  Data was collected among 22250 respondents in Mauritius whereby a questionnaire was administered through personal interviews with the aim of achieving a higher response rate. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) was performed to reveal the underlying factors influencing people’s perceptions and attitudes towards online shopping and the results uncovered that ‘online shopping conveniences’, ‘security and product risk’, ‘complexity and waiting time’ and ‘enjoyment and pleasure’ were major contributors to overall attitudes towards online shopping attributes. The binary regression model was also fitted   and factors such as marital status and internet at home were the significant factors to contribute towards online shopping

Keywords: Binary Logistic, Online Shopping, Principal Component Analysis, Security


The Nigerian Government has enjoyed cordial relationship with the government of the United States over the years especially given the former’s quantum of oil deposit and the latter’s access to exploiting same. However, the emergence of Boko Haram insurgence has been a source of concern to both countries especially as it portends danger to their interests. Despite the efforts of both countries in finding a lasting solution to the problem, the desired result is yet to be attained. In view of this, the study examined the effectiveness of the US security strategies in assisting Nigeria overcome the crisis of Boko Haram. Intractable conflict theory was adopted in arguing that it would be difficult to resolve the crisis of Boko Haram but it can, at least, be managed if proper strategies are put in place. Finally, the work discovered that in line with American foreign policy of zero tolerance to international terrorism, its strategies in assisting Nigeria overcome Boko Haram crisis have not been very effective.

Keywords: Boko Haram, Crisis, Management, Security, Strategy, Terrorism


This study identifies those to be involved in managing Nigerian tertiary educational institutions for national security. The significance is to enhance effective and efficient tertiary educational policy formulation, planning and implementation as well as global recognition and association. Document analysis, related literature review, research questions, hypotheses, validated and reliability-tested self-constructed questionnaire and visits were used. Of the 284 tertiary educational institutions in Nigeria, 10.21% thereof was randomly selected to evenly cover the six-geopolitical zones and the FCT-Abuja. The study identified nine groups of individuals to be involved in managing tertiary educational institutions for national security and found out that there is no significant difference between staff and students on the findings. It concludes that the identification is very necessary for tertiary educational goals achievement and national security hence, recommends their involvement in managing and security issues

Keywords: Achievement, Educational, Goals, Institutions, Managing, National, Security, Tertiary

National Security and Journalism Practice: Emerging Considerations for Nigerian Journalists (Published)

National security has in recent times become a planetary concern with the security beat even more daunting for journalists. This has therefore necessitated the need to streamline the ethical issues involved in covering national security with a view to averting the disclosure of information that may create bedlam, cause damage and endanger national security. The nature of study was thematic and this necessitated focus group discussions among select journalists and officials of some law enforcement agencies in Nigeria. Discussions however revealed that most journalistic reports tend to blur the line of distinction between the right to know and the need to know. This was equally found to be borne out of a marketing concern by newspaper proprietors to have headlines that will sell their papers. Conversely, it was also found that some government officials, in the guise of national security, overtly classify information bits that ought not to be classified. Drawing from the foregoing, it was recommended that journalists should develop checklists that will ensure that national security reports must predominantly be devoid of technical and location details that are capable of putting lives and programmes in jeopardy. It was further recommended that news reports on national security must be truthful, accurate and must also be backed by a compelling need to reveal it in an ethical manner in contradistinction to wanton disregard.

Keywords: Ethics, Information, Journalists, National, Security

3CAuth – A Novel Multi-Factor Authentication Scheme using QR-Code (Review Completed - Accepted)

A multi-factor authentication scheme for remote authentication has been proposed in the paper which provides enough protection on personal credentials of the user. A critical analysis of the scheme shows that it can resist most of the possible attacks and is particularly useful at times of peak loads on servers. The scheme can easily integrate intoany framework offering Internet services to add security guarantee. The same has been brought out by integration with a multi-layered framework designed to handle peak loads on the server ensuring concurrency and availability as well. This integration is seen to clearly enhance the QoS in terms of making right admittance to right resources.

Keywords: 3CAuth, Authentication, Multi-layered Filtering, Multiphase admission control, Peak load, QR-Code, Security, Smart-card

Impact of ECOWAS Protocols on Political and Economic Integration of the West African Sub-Region (Published)

This paper analysed the impact of the ECOWAS protocols and programmes on political and economic integration of West African sub-region. The desk review method was adopted in this paper, while information contained therein were obtained from relevant literatures’. The paper evaluated the implementation of the various protocols and programmes that constitute the main integrative instruments of ECOWAS from 1975 – 2007. These include protocols and programmes relating to free movement of persons, trade liberation, monetary cooperation, transport, telecommunication, conflict resolution, energy and power and ECOWAS Court of Justice. The paper observed that although the necessary structures have been put in place, ECOWAS is yet to achieve complete implementation in some of the main integrative instruments. It was also observed that some of the programmes have negative impacts on the sub-region. The partial implementation achieved in free movement of persons and goods is not yielding expected benefits due to lack of political will and administrative bottleneck in implementing the various protocols and programmes placed by member-states. In spite of these shortcomings, ECOWAS has made some remarkable progress in its drive to regional integrations. The paper recommends among others that ECOWAS should source for fund internally by ensuring that member-nations pay their dues. ECOWAS leaders should practice good and transparent governance in their countries to reduce occurrences of conflicts in the region.

Keywords: Development, ECOWAS Institutions, Economic Integration, Political Integration, Security