In the last decade, Nigeria has been under the yoke of hideous security challenges ranging from Boko Haram insurgency, herdsmen atrocities, kidnappings, hostage takings and abductions, militancy, banditry and the menace of cultism. By all objective standards, Nigeria could rightly be described as one country in a state of unconventional war in multiple fronts. The armed forces of Nigeria and indeed the entire security architecture have been strained and stretched to the limits. Successive Governments have tried to degrade and defeat this rampaging horde of terrorist groups without the desired results. There is therefore the urgent and compelling need for a paradigm shift from the strategy of military option and counter insurgency. A new model of engagement within the context of mass political education is being advocated by this paper as a viable strategy to subtly galvanize the society and defeat organized terrorism now ravaging Nigeria. To realize this objective, the paper adopts the historical and interpretive research method. The paper also recommends that Nigeria’s educational system should be revamped with emphasis on core values of patriotism, civic obligations and responsible citizenship.
Citation: Chike A. Ezenwa and Nwachukwu C. Igwilo (2021) Political Education and Nigeria’s Sustainable Security Goals, Global Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol.9, No.1, pp.52-59,
The field of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) combines sensing, computation, and communication into a single tiny device called a sensor. Sensors are equipped with RF radio, processor, memory and hardware. They are also battery powered and therefore have severe energy, bandwidths and memory constraints, and low computational capability. Communication over WSNs is still known to be attack-prone because the constraints of sensors hinder the development of secure modern cryptographic solutions. The Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) technique and the Rivest Shamir Adleman (RSA) algorithm are the two most popular public key cryptographic schemes deployed over wireless networks. The effectiveness of the ECC technique over RSA has been demonstrated in this research. While ECC with very large key sizes is thought to be computationally expensive, it is possible to use smaller primes, or smaller finite fields, with elliptic curves and achieve a level of security comparable to that for much larger integer mod n. Measurements have been made to prove that ECC algorithms can be executed within the memory limits of sensor nodes. An enhanced ECC scheme with collision resistant hash functions is proposed in this research.
The Arab Spring and Syria Security (Published)
The article discussed the Arab Spring and the uprisings it brought to leading to the overthrow long-serving regimes Syria. The article focused on Syria by analyzed the disastrous impact the Arab Spring has on Syria, particularly on how it has affected Syria security. The uprising was influenced by anti-government protests by some group of Syrians who were demanding the resignation of President Bashar al-Assad. The impact of the Syrian civil war was the effect it had on regional security through the activities of violent extremist groups which forced majority of its citizen to seek refuge in neighboring countries.
Use of Electronic Information Security Systems in Double Day Hotel and Complimentary Suites, Owerri, Imo State (Published)
The general purpose of this study is use of electronic information security systems in Double Day Hotel and Complimentary Suites, Owerri, Imo State. The survey design research was used for the study using self constructed and validated questionnaire as an instrument for data collection. The study adopted census method which was used to investigate 44 staff of Double Day Hotel and Complimentary Suites, Owerri, Imo State. Findings showed that staff of Double Day Hotel and Complimentary Suites, Owerri, Imo State have various reasons for the use of electronic information security systems such as effective information service delivery, data/information and system protection and information authenticity/confidentiality. The study recommends that there should be continuous evaluation, review and refinement in the creation of reliable and sustainable security audit traits within electronic information systems and security strategy.
How Nature of Duty Influence Private Security Employee’s Engagement in Criminal Activities in Nakuru Town Municipality, Nakuru County- Kenya (Published)
Private security industry is increasingly recognized as playing an important role in fostering conditions conducive to development, investment and growth. Despite the rapid growth of the sector, there are no regulations or requirements in terms of the training and vetting of guards, and the quality of training and services vary considerably from one company to another company. Given the unevenness of training and standards, concerns are frequently raised about the quality and integrity of security staff with unconfirmed reports that guards are in collusion with criminals. This study examined factors that influence private security firm’s employees to engage in criminal activities in Nakuru Municipality. Objectives that guided the study included; to examining how the nature of duty influence private security employees to engage in criminal activities, to determine the influence of job capacity requirement on employees engagement in criminal activities, to establish the effectiveness of measures employed by private security firms to curb criminal activities among its employees and how work environment influence private security employees in engaging in criminal activities. This study used survey research design. Multi-stage sampling procedure was adopted in selecting both the study area and sample units. Whereas purposive sampling was used in selecting study area and six key informants, stratified random sampling was used to select employees from various private security firms. The study was grounded on Routine activity theory and Control theory .The study results revealed that quite a number of employees in all these services have experienced or engaged in crime. However, there is correlation of 0.5 and 0.6 respectively between guarding and cash in transits services. The results indicate that guarding and cash in transits employees mostly engage on crime. It is also evident from the results that security firms places; low emphasis on academic qualification, relevant training, relevant skills and high emphasis on certificate of good conduct, age, health/physical fitness gender; as pre-qualification requirement for employment. The study recommends that security firms should provide working environment that embraces growth and capacity development of the employees. These would include; better training to deter crime, adoption of technology, security briefing, crime warnings, screening and involvement of police in crime management
A Framework for Security of Data in Telemedicine (Published)
One of the challenges of telemedicine as observed in the literature is the issue of insecurity of data. This has come with its attendant lack of confidentiality and data integrity, the attributes most needed in medical records. An attempt to proffer solution to this problem is in the design of a framework comprising Rivest, Shamir and Adleman (RSA) cipher combined with the F4 frequency domain steganography algorithm. The framework is demonstrated with a simulated scenario. Complicated though this integration seems to be, the foolproof security offered outweighs the computational complexity.
The State and Boko Haram Insurgency in Nigeria: The Challenge of National Security (2009-2015) (Published)
In the checklist of Nigeria’s security challenges, the Boko Haram insurgency stands out as the most disturbing and unsettling experience. Founded in 2002 by Mohammed Yusuf, an Orthodox Islamist proselyte, the Boko Haram sect has waged a relentless war of attrition against the Nigerian State. The group deployed improvised explosive devices, guerrilla warfare, suicide bombings, hostage taking, rape, and other heinous atrocities to undermine Nigeria’s sovereignty and national security. As a corollary to this pursuit, the paper is poised to unravel and expose the underlying factors through the context of the theory of post colonial state. The overriding tendency to cease and manipulate the state apparatus by the dominant power elite structurally disarticulates and weakens the state on the one hand and sustains the Boko Haram vicious campaigns of terror on the other hand. The paper therefore recommends a total reappraisal of the nature and character of the Nigerian state on the basis of entrenching a veritable democratic culture and de-emphasizing the frantic quest for political power by competing factions of the ruling class.
The study is premised on “Social and Behaviour Change Communication (SBCC) Approaches and Community Policing in Calabar South Local Government Area, Cross River State, Nigeria”. It examines the awareness level of the concept of community policing and how it can be sustainably entrenched, using a community-grounded communication approach. The study adopted the survey method as the research design while the data were gathered using the questionnaire. The population of study includes; CRUTECH residents, Police, Vigilante members and CRUTECH private security who are all stakeholders on security matters in CRUTECH. The purposive sampling method was adopted to select respondents from within the residential area while the Social Exchange Theory and Community Organization Model were used to theoretically underpin the concept of community policing in a social and behavior change communication perspective. The findings showed that, the awareness level of community policing among CRUTECH residents was moderate, hence, the isolation experienced between the parties. The study concluded that, for a result-oriented, cohesive relationship between the Police and the community, the government, Police, and Community Vigilant groups should adopt a conceptual umbrella to integrate their different message efforts that enable them share information for collective goals.
National Security Challenges and Sustainable Development in Nigeria: A Critical Analysis of the Niger Delta Region (Published)
Nigeria has on daily basis experienced an upsurge of activities that threatens and endangers its national security. In recent times, the Nigerian nation suddenly metamorphosed into an abode of insecurity. The Niger Delta region which is the centre of Nigeria’s oil wealth has been the scene of protest, conflict and violence. Despite its abundant oil wealth, there has been unimaginable level of poverty, unemployment, inequality, poor infrastructure, lack of social amenities and negligible development in the region. In view of this scenario, the paper basically analyses and ascertains the impact of national security challenges on sustainable development in Nigeria with a particular focus on the Niger Delta region and the responses by successive governments in tackling them. Findings from the paper reveal among others that, the security challenges in Nigeria have long historical antecedence and the crises and conflicts in the Niger Delta region are the consequences of several years of exploitation, neglect and deliberate abandonment of the region which is the economic base of the nation, by successive governments and oil multinationals. The paper therefore concludes and recommends amongst others, the formulation and effective implementation of policies capable of addressing the root causes of insecurity in Nigeria and that more efforts should be made by the federal government and oil companies to improve the quality of human lives in the region and the nation at large. Qualitative and descriptive methods of data analysis were adopted for this study. The paper used secondary data in which conclusion and recommendations where derived.
This paper examines the contributions of media and security as source of information. However, it may be print media or electronic media for the sustainable development of education in Nigeria. However, it emphasized the roles of the security on the protection of the life and properties of students in schools and outside schools in the country such as (kidnapping ,vandals of the school properties, and students unrest and other anti- social behaviour among the students in schools) .
This research paper examined the security threat issues against agents/multi-agent based system platform by malicious agent attackers in a network environment. Several techniques like fault isolation or sandboxing, access control to host resources, digital signatures, strong authentication, proof carrying code and message encryption were suggested by different research scholars as a means of mitigating the menace but however, no strong evidence on their application / implementation were mentioned. This research work used a 2 Factor or Double Data Encryption Standard (DES) approach to encrypt / decrypt messages between agents in our proposed network monitoring platform to prevent malicious agent from hijacking the exact network data content during communication. Java programming language was used to implement the 2DES algorithm in the security mechanism proposed. The system was tested for its effectiveness and efficiency in both non-production and production network environment. Results revealed detection rate to be high and with a very minimal false alarm rate. The proposed system is highly recommended for usage in any local area network environment.
Social and Behaviour Change Communication (SBCC) Approaches And Community Policing in Calabar South Local Government Area, Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)
The study is premised on “Social and Behaviour Change Communication Approaches and Community Policing in Calabar South Local Government Area, Cross River State”. It examines the awareness level of the concept of community policing and how it can be sustainably entrenched and effective, using a community-grounded communication approach. The study adopted the survey method as the research design while the data were gathered using the questionnaire. The population of study includes; CRUTECH residents, Police, Vigilante members and CRUTECH private security who are all stakeholders on security matters in CRUTECH. The purposive sampling method was adopted to select respondents from within the residential area while the Social Exchange Theory and Community Organization Model were used to theoretically underpin the concept of community policing in a social and behavior change communication perspective. The findings showed that, the awareness level of community policing among CRUTECH residents was moderate, hence, the isolation experienced between the parties. The study concluded that, for a result-oriented, cohesive relationship between the Police and the community, the government, Police, and Community Vigilant groups should adopt a conceptual umbrella to integrate their different message efforts that enable them share information for collective goals.
Democracy has been an acceptable platform of interaction in the committee of nations. It is also the most widely acceptable system of governance. Essentially, the birth of democracy in Nigeria has endured for over a decade, but the democratization process in Nigeria suffers from several security issues, given that the citizens have been exposed to high levels of insurgency, poverty and unemployment. Social and economic insecurity has being a major setback to democratic governance in Nigeria and this has impaired the participation of the citizens in democratic governance, thereby leaving governance for a privilege few. This paper examines the linkage between social and economic insecurity and the participation of Nigeria citizens in democratic governance. The researchers adopted a public opinion questionnaire based on experts’ judgment; and using the Cronbach alpha formulae; internal consistency reliability coefficient of 0.87 was obtained. The data collected was analyzed using the one sample t-test, with hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. Findings indicate that social and economic insecurity negatively impact on democratic participation; given that the fear of violent attack, poverty, absence of the dividend and unequal distribution wealth reduce democratic participation. Recommendations are made that politicians should be obliged by law to fulfill the promises made during campaigns or before elected into offices. Government should create an enabling environment to address issues of poverty, unemployment, corruption among governing class and insurgency, so that security for life and property will be assured.
Dealing with large amount of data and running analytics on those data is becoming challenging with rapidly increase in various types of data. Big data is the technology which deals with such large amount of data analytics. It covers wide range of application areas from managing data of social networking sites to the large amount of data on ecommerce portals for decision making. In this paper an attempt is made to present a review of State of Art technology in Big Data, its importance, major benefits and challenging in this domain.
Predicting Consumer Adoption of Point Of Sale (POS) E-Payment System in Nigeria Using Extended Technology Acceptance Model (Published)
This study is concerned with Predicting Consumer Adoption of Point of Sale (POS) e-Payment System in Nigeria Using Extended Technology Acceptance Model. We extended the TAM by adding two variables: consumer awareness and security of operations to ascertain how they predict the original TAM constructs: PU and PEOU to predict POS adoption. The study was based on a sample of 400 respondents in Awka, Nigeria; of which 234 responded. Questionnaire was the instrument for data collection and was designed with five point likert scale. Four items were used to measure each of the variables. The analysis was done with SEM with the aid of AMOS 23 software. This study has established that PEOU and PU positively and significantly impact POS adoption in Nigeria. It also demonstrated that security impacts PEOU positively and significantly but insignificantly on PU. Consumer awareness (CA) significantly and positively impact PU but impact on PEOU is not significant. The study has implications for research and practice. Further researches should be conducted with further extensions to show the mediation and or moderation impacts of the two variables
This paper examines the contributions of media and security as source of information. However, it may be print media or electronic media for the sustainable development of education in Nigeria. However, it emphasized the roles of the security on the protection of the life and properties of students in schools and outside schools in the country such as (kidnapping, vandals of the school properties and students unrest and other anti- social behaviour among the students in schools).
Corruption is endemic social problem in Nigerian society; it is particularly objectionable in Nigeria Police Force. This study x-ray prevalence and consequences of corruption in Nigeria Police Force. It predominantly utilized secondary data. This study has identified that, in Nigeria, the police force has become an epitome of all multi corrupt and fraudulent schemes which constitute a stumbling block to the effective administration of justice and efficient maintenance of law and order in Nigeria and have soiled the image of the force. Thus, the study recommends fundamental restructuring, reorganization, total war against police graft to re-invent a new image for the police and professionalization through further training and re-education in the force which would hopefully launch the Nigerian Police Force on the positive side of history.
The Challenge of Infrastructure Development on Preservation of Perishable Horticultural Produce for Sustained Urban Food Nutrition in Metropolitan Kaduna, Nigeria (Published)
Perishable horticultural crops as fruits and vegetables – rich vitamins, protein, minerals and fiber contents – contribute a lot to human diet. Though Nigeria produces enormous quantity of these produce, shortages in consumption and nutrition exists due to losses in the production value chain system. This is mainly attributed to lack of the development of an efficient management technique in the handling, transporting and storage systems; with attendant consequences on urban food and nutrition security in a rapidly urbanizing Nigeria. It is against this backdrop that this study was undertaken to identify the problems of handling technologies that would result in enhanced shelf-life of these commodities and healthier urban nutrition in metropolitan Kaduna, Nigeria; in 2010. Structured questionnaires and schedule interviews were used to randomly collect primary and secondary data. This was analyzed and presented using descriptive statistical analytical tools. Results indicated that the major factors affecting the storage quality of fruits and vegetables are bad roads (40%); improper production, handling and transportation (33. 33%) system; harsh weather (20%); while insect pest infestation (6.67%) was least. Baskets and sacks are still used as the predominant means of storage of produce (35% and 32% respectively). Indeed, a lot of losses are recorded due to bad roads at harvest. Incidentally, the refrigerating system, the most efficient means of preservation is not predominantly used because of its exorbitant cost; and high tariffs on electricity. Where cost is affordable, power supply is epileptic due to an underdeveloped power sector. It is concluded that the intractable challenge of lack of infrastructure poses a major developmental setback in Nigeria. Indeed, this is a key challenge against the evolvement of a sustainable post-harvest management system; as well as a drawback on the fight against hunger, malnutrition and poverty – foremost objective of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDG’s). Consequently, there is an imperative need for massive investment in infrastructural and human capital development. Without doubt, in Nigeria today, post-harvest and infrastructural management of the food production chain remains a major challenge.
Three – Level Password Authentication (Published)
Authentication is one of the most important security service provided to system by the different authentication schemes or algorithms which must be provided so that only authorized persons can have right to use or handle that system and data related to that information system securely. Techniques used include token based, biometric based as well as knowledge based. Despite these, no single mechanism is efficient and effective to provide adequate security for computing resources such as programs, files, messages, printers, internet, etc. A 3 – level authentication is proposed in this paper that is more confidential for ensuring adequate security.
This paper examines the issue of Boko Haram insurgence and its implications on socio-political economic in Nigeria. We used survey questionnaire based on economic, social and political activities in the country, data were collected from stakeholders with evidence from newspapers. The findings include the following; the activities of the insurgency have crippled the economic activities which are as results of unemployment, poverty and illiteracy in the Northern-part of Nigeria. This suggests that this may constitutes serious threat to lives and property of Nigerians thereby hindering business activities and discouraging foreign investors. We find that the role of religious leaders encourage the activities of the insurgency, the political elite in the Northern-part of Nigeria also contribute to the insurgency as a result of bad governance. We recommend that Government must be proactive in dealing with security issues, use modern methods of intelligence gathering, adequate training, and motivation among security personnel and encourage the youth in going to school.