Tag Archives: Security

A Framework for Security of Data in Telemedicine (Published)

One of the challenges of telemedicine as observed in the literature is the issue of insecurity of data. This has come with its attendant lack of confidentiality and data integrity, the attributes most needed in medical records. An attempt to proffer solution to this problem is in the design of a framework comprising Rivest, Shamir and Adleman (RSA) cipher combined with the F4 frequency domain steganography algorithm. The framework is demonstrated with a simulated scenario. Complicated though this integration seems to be, the foolproof security offered outweighs the computational complexity.

Keywords: Confidentiality, Cryptography, F4, Integrity, RSA, Security, Steganography, telemedicine

The State and Boko Haram Insurgency in Nigeria: The Challenge of National Security (2009-2015) (Published)

In the checklist of Nigeria’s security challenges, the Boko Haram insurgency stands out as the most disturbing and unsettling experience. Founded in 2002 by Mohammed Yusuf, an Orthodox Islamist proselyte, the Boko Haram sect has waged a relentless war of attrition against the Nigerian State. The group deployed improvised explosive devices, guerrilla warfare, suicide bombings, hostage taking, rape, and other heinous atrocities to undermine Nigeria’s sovereignty and national security. As a corollary to this pursuit, the paper is poised to unravel and expose the underlying factors through the context of the theory of post colonial state. The overriding tendency to cease and manipulate the state apparatus by the dominant power elite structurally disarticulates and weakens the state on the one hand and sustains the Boko Haram vicious campaigns of terror on the other hand. The paper therefore recommends a total reappraisal of the nature and character of the Nigerian state on the basis of entrenching a veritable democratic culture and de-emphasizing the frantic quest for political power by competing factions of the ruling class.

Keywords: Boko Haram, Insurgency, Security, State, ruling class and sovereignty.

Social and Behaviour Change Communication Approaches and Community Policing In Nigeria (Published)

The study is premised on “Social and Behaviour Change Communication (SBCC) Approaches and Community Policing in Calabar South Local Government Area, Cross River State, Nigeria”. It examines the awareness level of the concept of community policing and how it can be sustainably entrenched, using a community-grounded communication approach. The study adopted the survey method as the research design while the data were gathered using the questionnaire. The population of study includes; CRUTECH residents, Police, Vigilante members and CRUTECH private security who are all stakeholders on security matters in CRUTECH. The purposive sampling method was adopted to select respondents from within the residential area while the Social Exchange Theory and Community Organization Model were used to theoretically underpin the concept of community policing in a social and behavior change communication perspective. The findings showed that, the awareness level of community policing among CRUTECH residents was moderate, hence, the isolation experienced between the parties. The study concluded that, for a result-oriented, cohesive relationship between the Police and the community, the government, Police, and Community Vigilant groups should adopt a conceptual umbrella to integrate their different message efforts that enable them share information for collective goals.   

 

Keywords: Behaviour change., Community Policing, Security, communication, social mobilization

National Security Challenges and Sustainable Development in Nigeria: A Critical Analysis of the Niger Delta Region (Published)

Nigeria has on daily basis experienced an upsurge of activities that threatens and endangers its national security. In recent times, the Nigerian nation suddenly metamorphosed into an abode of insecurity. The Niger Delta region which is the centre of Nigeria’s oil wealth has been the scene of protest, conflict and violence. Despite its abundant oil wealth, there has been unimaginable level of poverty, unemployment, inequality, poor infrastructure, lack of social amenities and negligible development in the region. In view of this scenario, the paper basically analyses and ascertains the impact of national security challenges on sustainable development in Nigeria with a particular focus on the Niger Delta region and the responses by successive governments in tackling them.  Findings from the paper reveal among others that, the security challenges in Nigeria have long historical antecedence and the crises and conflicts in the Niger Delta region are the consequences of several years of exploitation, neglect and deliberate abandonment of the region which is the economic base of the nation, by successive governments and oil multinationals. The paper therefore concludes and recommends amongst others, the formulation and effective implementation of policies capable of addressing the root causes of insecurity in Nigeria and that more efforts should be made by the federal government and oil companies to improve the quality of human lives in the region and the nation at large. Qualitative and descriptive methods of data analysis were adopted for this study. The paper used secondary data in which conclusion and recommendations where derived.

Keywords: Challenges, Development, Insecurity, National Security, Niger-Delta, Nigeria, Security, Sustainable Development

Media and Security in Nigeria: Implication for Sustainable Development on Education (Published)

This paper examines the contributions of media and security as source of information. However, it may be print media or electronic   media for the sustainable development of education in Nigeria. However, it emphasized the roles of the security on the protection of the life and properties of students in schools and outside schools in the country such as (kidnapping  ,vandals of the school properties,  and students unrest and other anti- social  behaviour among the students in schools) .

Keywords: Contributions, Media, Security, Students Education

Securing Multi-Agent Based Network Monitoring Platform against Malicious Agent Attack (Published)

This research paper examined the security threat issues against agents/multi-agent based system platform by malicious agent attackers in a network environment. Several techniques like fault isolation or sandboxing, access control to host resources, digital signatures, strong authentication, proof carrying code and message encryption were suggested by different research scholars as a means of mitigating the menace but however, no strong evidence on their application / implementation were mentioned. This research work used a 2 Factor or Double Data Encryption Standard (DES) approach to encrypt / decrypt messages between agents in our proposed network monitoring platform to prevent malicious agent from hijacking the exact network data content during communication. Java programming language was used to implement the 2DES algorithm in the security mechanism proposed. The system was tested for its effectiveness and efficiency in both non-production and production network environment. Results revealed detection rate to be high and with a very minimal false alarm rate. The proposed system is highly recommended for usage in any local area network environment.

Keywords: 2DES Algorithm, Agents, Java, LAN, Security

Social and Behaviour Change Communication (SBCC) Approaches And Community Policing in Calabar South Local Government Area, Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)

The study is premised on “Social and Behaviour Change Communication Approaches and Community Policing in Calabar South Local Government Area, Cross River State”. It examines the awareness level of the concept of community policing and how it can be sustainably entrenched and effective, using a community-grounded communication approach. The study adopted the survey method as the research design while the data were gathered using the questionnaire. The population of study includes; CRUTECH residents, Police, Vigilante members and CRUTECH private security who are all stakeholders on security matters in CRUTECH. The purposive sampling method was adopted to select respondents from within the residential area while the Social Exchange Theory and Community Organization Model were used to theoretically underpin the concept of community policing in a social and behavior change communication perspective. The findings showed that, the awareness level of community policing among CRUTECH residents was moderate, hence, the isolation experienced between the parties. The study concluded that, for a result-oriented, cohesive relationship between the Police and the community, the government, Police, and Community Vigilant groups should adopt a conceptual umbrella to integrate their different message efforts that enable them share information for collective goals.   

Keywords: Behaviour change., Community Policing, Security, communication, social mobilization

Socio-Economic Security and Democratic Participation in Nigeria (Published)

Democracy has been an acceptable platform of interaction in the committee of nations. It is also the most widely acceptable system of governance. Essentially, the birth of democracy in Nigeria has endured for over a decade, but the democratization process in Nigeria suffers from several security issues, given that the citizens have been exposed to high levels of insurgency, poverty and unemployment. Social and economic insecurity has being a major setback to democratic governance in Nigeria and this has impaired the participation of the citizens in democratic governance, thereby leaving governance for a privilege few. This paper examines the linkage between social and economic insecurity and the participation of Nigeria citizens in democratic governance. The researchers adopted a public opinion questionnaire based on experts’ judgment; and using the Cronbach alpha formulae; internal consistency reliability coefficient of 0.87 was obtained. The data collected was analyzed using the one sample t-test, with hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. Findings indicate that social and economic insecurity negatively impact on democratic participation; given that the fear of violent attack, poverty, absence of the dividend and unequal distribution wealth reduce democratic participation. Recommendations are made that politicians should be obliged by law to fulfill the promises made during campaigns or before elected into offices. Government should create an enabling environment to address issues of poverty, unemployment, corruption among governing class and insurgency, so that security for life and property will be assured.

Keywords: Insecurity, Poverty, Security, Socio-Economic, democratic participation

Big Data: Technology, Opportunities and Challenges (Published)

Dealing with large amount of data and running analytics on those data is becoming challenging with rapidly increase in various types of data. Big data is the technology which deals with such large amount of data analytics. It covers wide range of application areas from managing data of social networking sites to the large amount of data on ecommerce portals for decision making. In this paper an attempt is made to present a review of State of Art technology in Big Data, its importance, major benefits and challenging in this domain.

Keywords: Big Data, HDFS, Hadoop, Hive, MapReduce, Medical Image Processing, Remote Sensing, Security

Predicting Consumer Adoption of Point Of Sale (POS) E-Payment System in Nigeria Using Extended Technology Acceptance Model (Published)

This study is concerned with Predicting Consumer Adoption of Point of Sale (POS) e-Payment System in Nigeria Using Extended Technology Acceptance Model. We extended the TAM by adding two variables: consumer awareness and security of operations to ascertain how they predict the original TAM constructs: PU and PEOU to predict POS adoption. The study was based on a sample of 400 respondents in Awka, Nigeria; of which 234 responded. Questionnaire was the instrument for data collection and was designed with five point likert scale. Four items were used to measure each of the variables. The analysis was done with SEM with the aid of AMOS 23 software. This study has established that PEOU and PU positively and significantly impact POS adoption in Nigeria. It also demonstrated that security impacts PEOU positively and significantly but insignificantly on PU. Consumer awareness (CA) significantly and positively impact PU but impact on PEOU is not significant. The study has implications for research and practice. Further researches should be conducted with further extensions to show the mediation and or moderation impacts of the two variables

Keywords: E-Payment., Perceived Ease of Use, Perceived Usefulness, SEM, Security, awareness

Media and Security in Nigeria; Implication for Sustainable Development on Education (Published)

This paper examines the contributions of media and security as source of information. However, it may be print media or electronic   media for the sustainable development of education in Nigeria. However, it emphasized the roles of the security on the protection of the life and properties of students in schools and outside schools in the country such as (kidnapping, vandals of the school properties and students unrest and other anti- social behaviour among the students in schools).

Keywords: Contributions, Media, Security, Students Education

Police Corruption and the State: Prevalence and Consequences (Published)

Corruption is endemic social problem in Nigerian society; it is particularly objectionable in Nigeria Police Force. This study x-ray prevalence and consequences of corruption in Nigeria Police Force. It predominantly utilized secondary data. This study has identified that, in Nigeria, the police force has become an epitome of all multi corrupt and fraudulent schemes which constitute a stumbling block to the effective administration of justice and efficient maintenance of law and order in Nigeria and have soiled the image of the force. Thus, the study recommends fundamental restructuring, reorganization, total war against police graft to re-invent a new image for the police and professionalization through further training and re-education in the force which would hopefully launch the Nigerian Police Force on the positive side of history.

 

Keywords: Corruption, Justice, Law enforcement, Nigeria Police Force, Police, Security, Social problem

The Challenge of Infrastructure Development on Preservation of Perishable Horticultural Produce for Sustained Urban Food Nutrition in Metropolitan Kaduna, Nigeria (Published)

Perishable horticultural crops as fruits and vegetables – rich vitamins, protein, minerals and fiber contents – contribute a lot to human diet. Though Nigeria produces enormous quantity of these produce, shortages in consumption and nutrition exists due to losses in the production value chain system. This is mainly attributed to lack of the development of an efficient management technique in the handling, transporting and storage systems; with attendant consequences on urban food and nutrition security in a rapidly urbanizing Nigeria. It is against this backdrop that this study was undertaken to identify the problems of handling technologies that would result in enhanced shelf-life of these commodities and healthier urban nutrition in metropolitan Kaduna, Nigeria; in 2010. Structured questionnaires and schedule interviews were used to randomly collect primary and secondary data. This was analyzed and presented using descriptive statistical analytical tools. Results indicated that the major factors affecting the storage quality of fruits and vegetables are bad roads (40%); improper production, handling and transportation (33. 33%) system; harsh weather (20%); while insect pest infestation (6.67%) was least. Baskets and sacks are still used as the predominant means of storage of produce (35% and 32% respectively). Indeed, a lot of losses are recorded due to bad roads at harvest. Incidentally, the refrigerating system, the most efficient means of preservation is not predominantly used because of its exorbitant cost; and high tariffs on electricity. Where cost is affordable, power supply is epileptic due to an underdeveloped power sector. It is concluded that the intractable challenge of lack of infrastructure poses a major developmental setback in Nigeria. Indeed, this is a key challenge against the evolvement of a sustainable post-harvest management system; as well as a drawback on the fight against hunger, malnutrition and poverty – foremost objective of the UN’s Sustainable Development Goals (SDG’s). Consequently, there is an imperative need for massive investment in infrastructural and human capital development. Without doubt, in Nigeria today, post-harvest and infrastructural management of the food production chain remains a major challenge.

Keywords: Development, Horticulture, Infrastructure, Nutrition, Perishables, Post-Harvest, Security, Sustainable

Three – Level Password Authentication (Published)

Authentication is one of the most important security service provided to system by the different authentication schemes or algorithms which must be provided so that only authorized persons can have right to use or handle that system and data related to that information system securely. Techniques used include token based, biometric based as well as knowledge based. Despite these, no single mechanism is efficient and effective to provide adequate security for computing resources such as programs, files, messages, printers, internet, etc. A 3 – level authentication is proposed in this paper that is more confidential for ensuring adequate security.

Keywords: Authentication, Authentication Techniques, Information Systems, Security

The Insurgence and Socio-Political Economy In Nigeria (Published)

This paper examines the issue of Boko Haram insurgence and its implications on socio-political economic in Nigeria. We used survey questionnaire based on economic, social and political activities in the country, data were collected from stakeholders with evidence from newspapers. The findings include the following; the activities of the insurgency have crippled the economic activities which are as results of unemployment, poverty and illiteracy in the Northern-part of Nigeria. This suggests that this may constitutes serious threat to lives and property of Nigerians thereby hindering business activities and discouraging foreign investors. We find that the role of religious leaders encourage the activities of the insurgency, the political elite in the Northern-part of Nigeria also contribute to the insurgency as a result of bad governance. We recommend that Government must be proactive in dealing with security issues, use modern methods of intelligence gathering, adequate training, and motivation among security personnel and encourage the youth in going to school.

Keywords: Boko Haram, Political, Questionnaire, Security, Socio-Economic, Terrorism, and Government

Improving Social Security of Public Space by Emphasizing To Light Factor (Case Study- Historical Fabric of Yazd, Iran) (Published)

Yazd city is the first adobe and the second historical city in the world. Placement of valuable historical texture of this city in a circle of worn out context has caused the Gradual burial of social, economic, skeletal and functional life especially in the public spaces of historical core of town. In addition, the expansion of urban crime and increasing social vulnerability in the region reduced the high value of this texture and has faced the valuable historical public spaces with matters like security reduction, street harassment and reputation of insecurity that makes the most attractive tourist area of Yazd not to have a worthy attention especially to the citizens. One of the fundamental objectives of the public spaces of the city design, maintain security and tranquility that is achieved through the expansion of a physical security system. On this basis we must make these spaces in a way that contains sufficient capacity of security for the presence of all social groups. Within the scope of the historical areas that are valuable heritage of the past, the design should be conducted very cautiously. So this research in a manner of descriptive -analysis examine the impact of skeletal features of public spaces to create the local security and Environmental comfort. And address with a definition of secure spaces and its position in city of Yazd and exciting crimes in the historical core Centre of it (Fahadan neighborhood). And among the physical environmental factors it considers the impact of light factor in preventing the urban crimes and examines the rate of its dependency with security and insecurity. Finally, in order to increase security, and using the obtained data, some solutions are offered in accordance with special historical and value features of Fahadan.

Keywords: Fahadan-Yazd, Secure urban space, Security, skeletal physical features, urban crime

REGULATIONS OR LEGISLATION FOR DATA PROTECTION IN NIGERIA? A CALL FOR A CLEAR LEGISLATIVE FRAMEWORK (Published)

Personal information or personally identifiable data is a subject that people have become aware of the need to protect. And the challenge of legislating for data protection in today’s world is that which many nations have taken seriously. Nigeria as a developing nation appears not to be left out of this as the NITDA has released a set of guidelines in this regard as a means to offer some protection. This article examines legislations on the Nigerian landscape that resemble data protection legislation like the Official Secrets Act, the Freedom of Information Act and the most recent NITDA Draft Guidelines for data protection with a view to show the adequacy or otherwise. The guidelines were examined in some detail. The paper summarily compares the present landscape with the European Union standard and concludes that Nigeria does not have adequate data protection legislation. The paper concludes that strong legislation is desirable to protect personal data in Nigeria.

Keywords: Data protection, Guidelines, Legislation, Security, cyberspace

POLICE CORRUPTION AND THE STATE: PREVALENCE AND CONSEQUENCES (Published)

Corruption is endemic social problem in Nigerian society; it is particularly objectionable in Nigeria Police Force. This study x-ray prevalence and consequences of corruption in Nigeria Police Force. It predominantly utilized secondary data. This study has identified that, in Nigeria, the police force has become an epitome of all multi corrupt and fraudulent schemes which constitute a stumbling block to the effective administration of justice and efficient maintenance of law and order in Nigeria and have soiled the image of the force. Thus, the study recommends fundamental restructuring, reorganization, total war against police graft to re-invent a new image for the police and professionalization through further training and re-education in the force which would hopefully launch the Nigerian Police Force on the positive side of history.

Keywords: Corruption, Justice, Law enforcement, Nigeria Police Force, Police, Security, Social problem

VOTING POWERS AND A FUNCTIONAL REPRESENTATION OF THE VOTING CLOUT OF UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL MEMBERS WITH VETO POWER RELAXATION (Published)

An independent mathematical structure was developed for the computation of the voting powers of United Nations Security Council members using the Shapley value concept, cooperative games and deft constructions of coalition sets. The results, obtained through Microsoft Excel implementations show that each permanent member has more than ten times as much voting clout as all ten nonpermanent members put together. A sensitivity analysis-based theorem was formulated to address this unacceptable unwholesome lopsidedness in voting powers while preserving the veto status of permanent members.Finally the paper exploited the Shapley value concept to obtain mathematical formulations and representations of voting powers of the members subject to any resolution passing threshold of votes supported by at least a partial coalition of Permanent representatives. The solution expressions can be used to obtain various levels of voting powers by appropriate adjustments of the parameters, thus giving prescriptions for more equitable distribution of voting powers.

Keywords: Coalition, Council, Power, Security, Shapley, Voting

REDUCING UNEMPLOYMENT INCIDENCE FOR ECONOMIC SECURITY IN NIGERIA: THE INTERPLAY OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION AND URGENT SOCIAL INTERVENTION (Published)

Economic security being an ingredient for growth and development, makes no sense if job creation is not an outcome. Hence, this study examined the interplay of entrepreneurship education and urgent social intervention in order to reduce unemployment incidence in Nigeria. This simple descriptive survey design study provided a baseline information for policy-management on education in order to enhance productivity of citizens in Nigeria. Secondary data from National Bureau of Statistics and other data sources were obtained to answer four research questions raised for the study. Data analysis was effected with sample descriptive statistics and tables. Results obtained revealed: high rate of unemployment (across education levels and age groups), low level of entrepreneurship education, high prospects of entrepreneurship education in poverty alleviation and increase employment opportunities; and a tripatriate government intervention in their policies and programmes in order to create employment opportunities for citizens. Therefore, it was recommended that policymakers should emphasize entrepreneurship education at all levels of education while government should invest more on public goods for job opportunities in Nigeria.

Keywords: Education, Entrepreneurship, Intervention, Security, Unemployment