Tag Archives: Security

Respect for and Protection of Human Rights: An Imperative for Peace, Security and Development in Liberia (Published)

This Article analyses the role human rights culture plays in ensuring peaceful, secure and developed society, using Liberia as a case study. While it posits that human rights is subject to contestable philosophical underpinnings that there is seldom a universal consensus on its meaning, it adopts the United Nations definition which combines the perspectives of the natural law and legal positivism to form what it terms ‘inclusive legal positivism’. It accordingly defines human rights as those global standards of morality that are inherent in human beings by virtue of their humanity and protected by national governments and comity of nations through national laws and treaties. It argues that respecting the dignity of the human person is a recipe for peace, which in turn will enhance national security and sustainable development in the country. Example is when the State alleviates poverty which creates inequality and non-discriminatory tendencies, human rights is advanced, peaceful society is enthroned which can lead to development. It concedes that Liberia has adequate normative framework to respect human rights, but analysis of the three human rights obligations of Government namely – to respect, to protect and to fulfil human rights indicates that non-state actors like Liberia National Bar Association (LNBA) have crucial role to play in translating the dry letters of human rights in the constitution and other regional and international treaties into veritable tools  that will improve the lives and dignity of Liberians and residents alike including the women folks. It concludes that respect for human rights is indispensable for sustainable Peace, National Security and Development in any given society and calls on Liberian government to put in place structures and systems that are responsive in respecting and protecting human rights.

Keywords: Human Rights, Imperative, Peace, Protection, Security, development liberia

Border Security Management and ECOWAS Protocol on Free Movement in West Africa (Published)

Prior to the enactment of the ECOWAS Protocol on free movement, people move from one location to another, there was little or no regards for the artificial borders created by the colonial powers. The vision of the ECOWAS is to create a borderless region where the population will have access to the abundant resources and, able to exploit same through the creation of opportunities under a sustainable environment. Nevertheless, the unrestricted free movement of people in the sub-region resulted to situation of tension among citizens of the receiving country and migrants especially in places where migrants dominate trade and labour. The regimes that are rather weak can become destabilized under such tensions thereby resulting to free flow of criminalities. The challenges of the Protocol have not helped the security landscape of the sub-region even though ECOWAS prides itself as the first region in Africa with the free movement initiative, the Protocol is poorly implemented constituting more security concern than boosting regional trade and economic development. Despite these challenges and threats posed by border insecurity, there is a lack of a common approach in terms of policy formulation, especially from the direction of the government. Therefore, it is on this note the paper seeks to examine these overlapping issues and hold attempts to provide a possible solution in resolving them. Data were obtained using secondary sources and the data were analyzed qualitatively. The paper observed that the prospect of achieving effective border security was truncated due to unrestricted free movement of people and improper implementation of ECOWAS protocol in the sub-region. This uncontrolled and unmanaged border has resulted to infiltration of terrorists/insurgency, loss of government revenue, smuggling or trafficking of illegal goods among others. The paper further revealed that the issue of corruption, poor technological gadgets, and porous nature of the borders among others serve as strong challenge to effective border management in the region. Therefore called for a Paradigm Shift in achieving effective border management to include adequate provision of funds, use of modern technological gadgets, adequate training of security personnel, strengthening of Multinational Joint Task Force among others. 

Keywords: Border, ECOWAS protocol, Security, West Africa, border management

Evaluation of Architectural and Other Safety Measures Against Bomb Blasts in Market: An Avenue to Improve Security in Nigeria (Published)

Nigerian markets have been facing the problem of bomb blasts and they occur mostly in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) and northern part of the country. Thus, conducting a research in FCT market became necessary, since it is located in Nigeria; the aim was to evaluate the architectural and other safety measures against bomb blasts in the market, in order to generate guidelines to improve security in Nigeria. 419 sales points were studied and questionnaires were administered to 419 buyers in the market via random sampling method, in order to obtain the primary research data. Focus group discussions that were made up of five buyers were organised in conjunction with direct observation schedule in the market to also obtain the primary research data. The secondary research data were gotten from the reviews of relevant literatures to this study. Tables and photographs were used to analyse the data of this research. Among the findings from this research are: there are no adequate architectural design against bomb blasts in the market, and the vehicles that are gaining access into the market are not well checked against bomb blasts. Among the recommended guidelines are: adequate architectural design against bomb blasts should be provided in Nigerian markets, and the security personnel should be properly checking the incoming vehicles against bomb blasts in markets in Nigeria.

Keywords: Guidelines, Nigeria, Security, bomb blasts, markets

Law and Administration of Justice in Nigeria: The New paradigm for Enhancing National Security (Published)

Citation: Akindejoye, Temidayo and Ayenakin, Olumide Olabanjo (2022) Law and Administration of Justice in Nigeria: The New paradigm for Enhancing National Security, Global Journal of Politics and Law Research, Vol.10, No.1, pp.15-22

Abstract: The paper examines the roles of law and administration of justice in enhancing national security in Nigeria. Insecurity appears to be the greatest challenge threatening the integrity of the country. There is Boko Haram insurgency in the North-East, militancy and kidnapping for ransom are very rampant in virtually all parts of the country and Herdsmen/farmers clashes which originally began in the Middle Belt areas, is now a phenomenon in the whole territorial space, and there is rising incidence of armed robbery. Presently, the whole country is enveloped in an atmosphere of insecurity and this for a serious concern. Specifically, the paper examines the place of law in the scheme of national security and evaluates the existing national law and policy on crimes that continue to threaten the security of the nation of law in promoting national security and the administration of justice in Nigeria.The study recommends that The actors in the administration of justice system, the judges should imbibe, in particular, progressive legal ideology that emphasizes social justice; they should in specific clear cases avoid strict application of unjust legal rules which they consider oppressive or unfair.

Keywords: Law, National Security, Security, administration of justice.

National security and role of INGOs / NGOs in Pakistan (Published)

In Pakistan dramatically International Non-Governmental Organizations (INGOs) & Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) have proliferated and are under the scrutiny of Government, civil society and media. Sometimes they play important role to overcome the threats and challenges to governance and National security. Increasing number of INGOs / NGOs in Pakistan is attributed to absence of governance and is considered as a main cause of Government failure and rise of militancy. The spread of INGOs / NGOs and simultaneously militancy / terrorism in Pakistan has been seen by many Pakistanis as a complementary phenomenon. This study examines the adverse role of INGOs / NGOs in Pakistan and the prevalent practices and attitudes towards their accountability and legitimacy. It reflects as to how INGOs / NGOs can become vital social organizations, or conversely, a security risk and support for their missions. It provides an understanding as to what this sector is up to and concurrently suggests measures for its efficacy in Pakistan.

Keywords: Government, INGOs, NGOs, Security, Terrorism

The Hospitality Industry and the Comfort of Customers: The Case Study of Airport Inn Hotel (AIH) In Tamale (Published)

In today’s highly competitive hospitality industry, advancing service quality is significant in lifting the status of the hospitality and tourism industry. Clienteles’ satisfaction with hotel service delivery is recognized as one of the criteria used to measure the quality of hospitality services. The expression of satisfaction with hospitality service delivery results in the appreciation of the services provided. There is a large body of literature available on customer satisfaction but only a few scholarly studies are directly put on the satisfaction of the customer in relation to the tourists in Tamale Ghana. This study therefore, assesses the effect of the services rendered at the Airport Inn Hotel on tourists’ satisfaction. This survey was conducted at a 3.5 Star Airport Inn Hotel (AIH) in Tamale amongst 100 tourists who were systematically sampled within a period of two months continuously and 10 service providers. Appropriate statistical analyses such as frequencies and percentages were utilized. Results of the study revealed that a high percentage of tourists had high expectations with hotel services. Analysis of tourists’ satisfaction with the hotel services provided revealed that a significant percentage of tourists were satisfied with the services delivered. The relationship between tourists’ expectations and the various measures of service delivery (safety and security, politeness of the staff and physical facilities) were established. Service providers’ commitment and tourists’ characteristics were also found to be significantly related. Based on the results the study advocates that hospitality service providers should pay attention on customers’ personalities and expectations when it comes to enhancing their satisfaction. This study may be important to researchers in hospitality and tourism in understanding guest satisfaction and their comfort in the hotel industry especially in the research area Tamale.

Keywords: Customer Satisfaction, Hospitality, Security, comfort, relationships safety

Jurisprudence and the Implications of Morality for Democracy in Nigeria from 2015 to 2020 (Published)

In 2015, a general election was conducted that led to the change of baton from the Peoples Democratic Party (PDP) that pioneered the journey of the fourth republic which started in 1999. The change of baton brought in the All Progressive Congress (APC), a coalition of four different political parties representing different geopolitical region in Nigeria. As it is, the four political parties before the coalition had their own values which is a reflection of their moral and world outlook in a heterogeneous nation like Nigeria. The campaign slogan which was the basis of the contract of the political party with the masses was the need for change. A change that will guarantee socio-economic development, security of lives and property and justice for all. The expectation of the people was high on the assumption of office of the president in 2015 but the change promise has now been confirmed as a mirage. The objective of the study is to examine the implications of the application of the norms of morality in government in a heterogeneous state with diverse moral values like Nigeria. The study is doctrinal with data obtained from both primary and secondary sources. The study found out that the people and elected leaders were not on the same page as to the concept of change employed by the political party in government. The paper concluded that an elected president in Nigeria who is bound to emerge from one ethnic and religious background must shed the toga of  personal morality and where norms of morality are to be employed in governance, the norms of public morality generally acceptable to the people should be  employed.

Keywords: Democracy, Ethics, Jurisprudence, Morality, Security, norms

Political Education and Nigeria’s Sustainable Security Goals (Published)

In the last decade, Nigeria has been under the yoke of hideous security challenges ranging from Boko Haram insurgency, herdsmen atrocities, kidnappings, hostage   takings and abductions, militancy, banditry and the menace of cultism. By all objective standards, Nigeria could rightly be described as one country in a state of unconventional war in multiple fronts. The armed forces of Nigeria and indeed the entire security architecture have been strained and stretched to the limits. Successive Governments have tried to degrade and defeat this rampaging horde of terrorist groups without the desired results. There is therefore the urgent and compelling need for a paradigm shift from the strategy of military option and counter insurgency. A new model of engagement   within the context of mass political education is being advocated by this paper as a viable strategy to subtly galvanize the society and defeat organized terrorism now ravaging Nigeria. To realize this objective, the paper adopts the historical and   interpretive   research method. The paper also recommends that Nigeria’s educational system should be   revamped   with emphasis on core values of patriotism, civic obligations and responsible citizenship.

 

Citation: Chike A. Ezenwa  and Nwachukwu C. Igwilo (2021) Political Education and Nigeria’s Sustainable Security Goals, Global Journal of Arts, Humanities and Social Sciences, Vol.9, No.1, pp.52-59,

Keywords: Core Values, Security, Strategy, Terrorism, political education

An Energy-Efficient ECC Scheme for Wireless Sensor Networks (Published)

The field of wireless sensor networks (WSNs) combines sensing, computation, and communication into a single tiny device called a sensor. Sensors are equipped with RF radio, processor, memory and hardware. They are also battery powered and therefore have severe energy, bandwidths and memory constraints, and low computational capability. Communication over WSNs is still known to be attack-prone because the constraints of sensors hinder the development of secure modern cryptographic solutions. The Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) technique and the Rivest Shamir Adleman (RSA) algorithm are the two most popular public key cryptographic schemes deployed over wireless networks. The effectiveness of the ECC technique over RSA has been demonstrated in this research. While ECC with very large key sizes is thought to be computationally expensive, it is possible to use smaller primes, or smaller finite fields, with elliptic curves and achieve a level of security comparable to that for much larger integer mod n. Measurements have been made to prove that ECC algorithms can be executed within the memory limits of sensor nodes. An enhanced ECC scheme with collision resistant hash functions is proposed in this research.

Keywords: ECC, RSA, Security, Wireless Sensor Networks, communication, sensors

The Arab Spring and Syria Security (Published)

The article discussed the Arab Spring and the uprisings it brought to leading to the overthrow long-serving regimes Syria. The article focused on Syria by analyzed the disastrous impact the Arab Spring has on Syria, particularly on how it has affected Syria security. The uprising was influenced by anti-government protests by some group of Syrians who were demanding the resignation of President Bashar al-Assad. The impact of the Syrian civil war was the effect it had on regional security through the activities of violent extremist groups which forced majority of its citizen to seek refuge in neighboring countries.

Keywords: Arab, Security, Syria, spring

Use of Electronic Information Security Systems in Double Day Hotel and Complimentary Suites, Owerri, Imo State (Published)

The general purpose of this study is use of electronic information security systems in Double Day Hotel and Complimentary Suites, Owerri, Imo State. The survey design research was used for the study using self constructed and validated questionnaire as an instrument for data collection. The study adopted census method which was used to investigate 44 staff of Double Day Hotel and Complimentary Suites, Owerri, Imo State. Findings showed that staff of Double Day Hotel and Complimentary Suites, Owerri, Imo State have various reasons for the use of electronic information security systems such as effective information service delivery, data/information and system protection and information authenticity/confidentiality. The study recommends that there should be continuous evaluation, review and refinement in the creation of reliable and sustainable security audit traits within electronic information systems and security strategy.

Keywords: Security, Systems, Use, electronic information

How Nature of Duty Influence Private Security Employee’s Engagement in Criminal Activities in Nakuru Town Municipality, Nakuru County- Kenya (Published)

Private security industry is increasingly recognized as playing an important role in fostering conditions conducive to development, investment and growth. Despite the rapid growth of the sector, there are no regulations or requirements in terms of the training and vetting of guards, and the quality of training and services vary considerably from one company to another company. Given the unevenness of training and standards, concerns are frequently raised about the quality and integrity of security staff with unconfirmed reports that guards are in collusion with criminals. This study examined factors that influence private security firm’s employees to engage in criminal activities in Nakuru Municipality. Objectives that guided the study included; to examining how the nature of duty influence private security employees to engage in criminal activities, to determine the influence of job capacity requirement on employees engagement in criminal activities, to establish the effectiveness of measures employed by private security firms to curb criminal activities among its employees and how work environment influence private security employees in engaging in criminal activities. This study used survey research design. Multi-stage sampling procedure was adopted in selecting both the study area and sample units. Whereas purposive sampling was used in selecting study area and six key informants, stratified random sampling was used to select employees from various private security firms. The study was grounded on Routine activity theory and Control theory .The study results revealed that quite a number of employees in all these services have experienced or engaged in crime. However, there is correlation of 0.5 and 0.6 respectively between guarding and cash in transits services. The results indicate that guarding and cash in transits employees mostly engage on crime. It is also evident from the results that security firms places; low emphasis on academic qualification, relevant training, relevant skills and high emphasis on certificate of good conduct, age, health/physical fitness gender; as pre-qualification requirement for employment. The study recommends that security firms should provide working environment that embraces growth and capacity development of the employees. These would include; better training to deter crime, adoption of technology, security briefing, crime warnings, screening and involvement of police in crime management

 

Keywords: Security, Work Environment, criminal activities, nature of duty, private security crime, private security employees

A Framework for Security of Data in Telemedicine (Published)

One of the challenges of telemedicine as observed in the literature is the issue of insecurity of data. This has come with its attendant lack of confidentiality and data integrity, the attributes most needed in medical records. An attempt to proffer solution to this problem is in the design of a framework comprising Rivest, Shamir and Adleman (RSA) cipher combined with the F4 frequency domain steganography algorithm. The framework is demonstrated with a simulated scenario. Complicated though this integration seems to be, the foolproof security offered outweighs the computational complexity.

Keywords: Confidentiality, Cryptography, F4, Integrity, RSA, Security, Steganography, telemedicine

The State and Boko Haram Insurgency in Nigeria: The Challenge of National Security (2009-2015) (Published)

In the checklist of Nigeria’s security challenges, the Boko Haram insurgency stands out as the most disturbing and unsettling experience. Founded in 2002 by Mohammed Yusuf, an Orthodox Islamist proselyte, the Boko Haram sect has waged a relentless war of attrition against the Nigerian State. The group deployed improvised explosive devices, guerrilla warfare, suicide bombings, hostage taking, rape, and other heinous atrocities to undermine Nigeria’s sovereignty and national security. As a corollary to this pursuit, the paper is poised to unravel and expose the underlying factors through the context of the theory of post colonial state. The overriding tendency to cease and manipulate the state apparatus by the dominant power elite structurally disarticulates and weakens the state on the one hand and sustains the Boko Haram vicious campaigns of terror on the other hand. The paper therefore recommends a total reappraisal of the nature and character of the Nigerian state on the basis of entrenching a veritable democratic culture and de-emphasizing the frantic quest for political power by competing factions of the ruling class.

Keywords: Boko Haram, Insurgency, Security, State, ruling class and sovereignty.

Social and Behaviour Change Communication Approaches and Community Policing In Nigeria (Published)

The study is premised on “Social and Behaviour Change Communication (SBCC) Approaches and Community Policing in Calabar South Local Government Area, Cross River State, Nigeria”. It examines the awareness level of the concept of community policing and how it can be sustainably entrenched, using a community-grounded communication approach. The study adopted the survey method as the research design while the data were gathered using the questionnaire. The population of study includes; CRUTECH residents, Police, Vigilante members and CRUTECH private security who are all stakeholders on security matters in CRUTECH. The purposive sampling method was adopted to select respondents from within the residential area while the Social Exchange Theory and Community Organization Model were used to theoretically underpin the concept of community policing in a social and behavior change communication perspective. The findings showed that, the awareness level of community policing among CRUTECH residents was moderate, hence, the isolation experienced between the parties. The study concluded that, for a result-oriented, cohesive relationship between the Police and the community, the government, Police, and Community Vigilant groups should adopt a conceptual umbrella to integrate their different message efforts that enable them share information for collective goals.   

 

Keywords: Behaviour change., Community Policing, Security, communication, social mobilization

National Security Challenges and Sustainable Development in Nigeria: A Critical Analysis of the Niger Delta Region (Published)

Nigeria has on daily basis experienced an upsurge of activities that threatens and endangers its national security. In recent times, the Nigerian nation suddenly metamorphosed into an abode of insecurity. The Niger Delta region which is the centre of Nigeria’s oil wealth has been the scene of protest, conflict and violence. Despite its abundant oil wealth, there has been unimaginable level of poverty, unemployment, inequality, poor infrastructure, lack of social amenities and negligible development in the region. In view of this scenario, the paper basically analyses and ascertains the impact of national security challenges on sustainable development in Nigeria with a particular focus on the Niger Delta region and the responses by successive governments in tackling them.  Findings from the paper reveal among others that, the security challenges in Nigeria have long historical antecedence and the crises and conflicts in the Niger Delta region are the consequences of several years of exploitation, neglect and deliberate abandonment of the region which is the economic base of the nation, by successive governments and oil multinationals. The paper therefore concludes and recommends amongst others, the formulation and effective implementation of policies capable of addressing the root causes of insecurity in Nigeria and that more efforts should be made by the federal government and oil companies to improve the quality of human lives in the region and the nation at large. Qualitative and descriptive methods of data analysis were adopted for this study. The paper used secondary data in which conclusion and recommendations where derived.

Keywords: Challenges, Development, Insecurity, National Security, Niger-Delta, Nigeria, Security, Sustainable Development

Media and Security in Nigeria: Implication for Sustainable Development on Education (Published)

This paper examines the contributions of media and security as source of information. However, it may be print media or electronic   media for the sustainable development of education in Nigeria. However, it emphasized the roles of the security on the protection of the life and properties of students in schools and outside schools in the country such as (kidnapping  ,vandals of the school properties,  and students unrest and other anti- social  behaviour among the students in schools) .

Keywords: Contributions, Media, Security, Students Education

Securing Multi-Agent Based Network Monitoring Platform against Malicious Agent Attack (Published)

This research paper examined the security threat issues against agents/multi-agent based system platform by malicious agent attackers in a network environment. Several techniques like fault isolation or sandboxing, access control to host resources, digital signatures, strong authentication, proof carrying code and message encryption were suggested by different research scholars as a means of mitigating the menace but however, no strong evidence on their application / implementation were mentioned. This research work used a 2 Factor or Double Data Encryption Standard (DES) approach to encrypt / decrypt messages between agents in our proposed network monitoring platform to prevent malicious agent from hijacking the exact network data content during communication. Java programming language was used to implement the 2DES algorithm in the security mechanism proposed. The system was tested for its effectiveness and efficiency in both non-production and production network environment. Results revealed detection rate to be high and with a very minimal false alarm rate. The proposed system is highly recommended for usage in any local area network environment.

Keywords: 2DES Algorithm, Agents, Java, LAN, Security

Social and Behaviour Change Communication (SBCC) Approaches And Community Policing in Calabar South Local Government Area, Cross River State, Nigeria (Published)

The study is premised on “Social and Behaviour Change Communication Approaches and Community Policing in Calabar South Local Government Area, Cross River State”. It examines the awareness level of the concept of community policing and how it can be sustainably entrenched and effective, using a community-grounded communication approach. The study adopted the survey method as the research design while the data were gathered using the questionnaire. The population of study includes; CRUTECH residents, Police, Vigilante members and CRUTECH private security who are all stakeholders on security matters in CRUTECH. The purposive sampling method was adopted to select respondents from within the residential area while the Social Exchange Theory and Community Organization Model were used to theoretically underpin the concept of community policing in a social and behavior change communication perspective. The findings showed that, the awareness level of community policing among CRUTECH residents was moderate, hence, the isolation experienced between the parties. The study concluded that, for a result-oriented, cohesive relationship between the Police and the community, the government, Police, and Community Vigilant groups should adopt a conceptual umbrella to integrate their different message efforts that enable them share information for collective goals.   

Keywords: Behaviour change., Community Policing, Security, communication, social mobilization

Socio-Economic Security and Democratic Participation in Nigeria (Published)

Democracy has been an acceptable platform of interaction in the committee of nations. It is also the most widely acceptable system of governance. Essentially, the birth of democracy in Nigeria has endured for over a decade, but the democratization process in Nigeria suffers from several security issues, given that the citizens have been exposed to high levels of insurgency, poverty and unemployment. Social and economic insecurity has being a major setback to democratic governance in Nigeria and this has impaired the participation of the citizens in democratic governance, thereby leaving governance for a privilege few. This paper examines the linkage between social and economic insecurity and the participation of Nigeria citizens in democratic governance. The researchers adopted a public opinion questionnaire based on experts’ judgment; and using the Cronbach alpha formulae; internal consistency reliability coefficient of 0.87 was obtained. The data collected was analyzed using the one sample t-test, with hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. Findings indicate that social and economic insecurity negatively impact on democratic participation; given that the fear of violent attack, poverty, absence of the dividend and unequal distribution wealth reduce democratic participation. Recommendations are made that politicians should be obliged by law to fulfill the promises made during campaigns or before elected into offices. Government should create an enabling environment to address issues of poverty, unemployment, corruption among governing class and insurgency, so that security for life and property will be assured.

Keywords: Insecurity, Poverty, Security, Socio-Economic, democratic participation