Allah’s Political Sovereignty, As ‘Imagined’ By Fundamentalist Muslims, and Its Role in Disapproving Secularism in the Arab World (Published)
This article’s central theme is to expose the ‘views’ of fundamentalist Muslims and radical Ulema about secularism; which is the separation between religion and state affairs. Fundamentalists and Ulema have been using many internet websites and forums to oppose Arab governments and liberals’ endeavors for secularization. Fundamentalists introduced what they call “Islamic alternative” which insist on fusing religion and state affairs. Through their intellectual discourse, the fundamentalists distorted secularism in the collective consciousness of Arab societies, and have created a psychological complex rooted in the subconscious and internal thinking that secularism is jahiliyyah (ignorance), kufir (unbelief/infidelity), Rida (apostasy) and iilhad (atheism). This fact is of great importance in the present history when the influence of Islamic extremism; that producing terrorism, is increasing throughout the world. This study focuses on the internet, websites, and forums run by fundamentalist groups and individuals, since these sites became more influential than books, because of its easy availability and lower costs.
Religious Philosophy of Tipu Sultan (Published)
The religious philosophy of Tipu Sultan has not been examined in a truthful and objective manner by the historians who have developed caste based prejudices in India. Tipu was a great patron of Hindu religion and provided financial assistance to several Hindu and other religious institutions and activities. He recruited a good number of Hindu officials to manage the revenue, defence and other branches of administration. He carried out the administration of Mysore state with due respect to nationalism and secularism. Several Hindu scholars have observed that Tipu had endeavored his best for the unity of the Muslims and the Hindus. He had used the state power for social reforms. He carried out social reformation on the basis of humanity and rationality. There are several historical evidences which prove that Tipu had tolerated the practice of Hindu religion within his own territory and became popular with all his subjects. Tipu’s religious policy assumes great significance in the present times since the ruling class has posed series of threats to secularism, pluralism, humanism and other values of life.
The idea of “secularism” is still rejected within the Arab cognitive structure at the level of intellectual, social and political construction. So far, Arab secularists have failed to find popular acceptance for secularism within the Arab cultural- religious structure and socio political sphere. As a result, traditional religious discourse and values still dominate minds!! The purpose of this study is to discuss, analyze and explain why secularism has not become the culture and political ideology of the Arab peoples and governments. The researcher assumes that the reasons are due to: the neglect of the cultural factor by the Arab secularists, the marriage of Arab nationalism and religion, the emergence of political Islam’s movements, and the nature of Islamic religion that rejects reform. Therefore, the researcher recommends that, there is a pressing need for reproducing Arabs prevailing traditional culture by promoting, a civil culture that privatize religion and separates it from politics and state affairs
ISLAMIC POLITICAL ORDER AS A MODEL OF POLITICS AND GOVERNANCE FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (Published)
The continues encroachment by the US and its allies to challenge the Islamic form of government as alternative to the modern secular system coming at a time when both the West and Muslim scholars remain divided in their assessment of the Islamic system of democracy. Perhaps, unlike Christianity, Islam does not separate religion from state, and many Muslims argue it is a political Islam not political “Islam that requires explanation”. As such, many Islamist or Islamic political order (democratic parties) existed in almost every democracy with a Muslim majority. As a result, many Islamic groups are also working in different parts of world to adopt non violent resistance of Western political, social, cultural and technological ways of governance particularly so in Egypt, Algeria, Iran, and Turkey advocated and practiced “Westernization”. However, this has made them to become a disorder countries having deviated from the Islamic system of democracy. The pattern of western politics is completely different from the Islamic form of politics, where the mission and purpose are far ahead. While Islamic pattern of politics and other economic vices largely depicted in the Holy Qur’an and Sunna (tradition) of the prophet Muhammad (SAW), on the other hand, the western politics and other socioeconomic devices are purely derived from man-made laws which were designed only to perpetuate the interest of the West.