Influence of Internal Supervision of Instruction on Improving Teacher Performance in Secondary Schools in Edo State (Published)
This study investigated the influence of internal supervision of instruction on improving Teacher performance in secondary schools in Edo State. Four research questions and four hypotheses were postulated to guide the study. Descriptive survey design was used. From the population of 1110 teachers, of Edo State, 444 teachers were sampled using proportionate stratified random sampling technique. The sampled teachers represent 40% of the entire population. A thirty-two (32) item questionnaire was sent to experts for validation and they offered useful suggestions after their review. Data were analyzed using mean, standard deviation, t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA). Mean and Standard Deviation were used to answer all the research questions posed in the study. Four null hypotheses formulated were tested using t-test and ANOVA at 0.05 level of significance. The study found that internal supervision of instruction had positive influence on improving teacher performance in Edo State. The study found that classroom visitation, observation technique, demonstration technique and evaluation technique had a positive influence on teacher performance in secondary schools in Edo State. The study also found that there was no significant difference on the influence of internal supervision in improving teacher performance in secondary school based on gender, location, educational qualifications and teaching experience. Based on the findings, it was recommended that: supervisors and Principals should endeavour to ensure that classes are regularly visited to enable secondary school teachers to improve more in their performances.
School Strategies for Managing Social Media Influence on Students’ Discipline in Kenyan Secondary Schools (Published)
Social media is a global phenomenon changing the world in different ways. It has also been found to have both positive and negative influences on education processes as well as on students’ discipline. Therefore, the study sought to develop strategies for managing the influence of social media on students’ discipline in secondary schools in Kenya. Based on the study, this paper presents and discusses the research findings on the study objective which sought to establish and assess the strategies that the schools have and can put in place to manage the influence of social media on students’ discipline. The study utilized the pragmatic philosophical paradigm and the mixed methods research design where both positivists and constructivists approaches and techniques were combined. The study was undertaken in Bungoma County in Kenya. It was carried out in 306 secondary schools in the County. The target population of study was 19,000 students in Form 3. Scott Smith’s formula was used to determine the sample size of 600 students from 40 secondary schools as respondents. Purposive sampling was applied to select the 40 deputy principals and 40 heads of guidance and counselling departments from the selected secondary schools as respondents in the study. Three categories of boys’, girls’ and mixed schools were chosen from each sub-county. The questionnaires used had both closed- and open-ended questions. Interviews were also used to get more information for the study. Multiple Regression used to analyse the quantitative data. The strategies for managing discipline by schools were rated highly for implementation. The study recommended that schools should allow social media to be used as a teaching and learning tool only. They should also employ experts to control social media misuse by students. Schools should also enable teachers to monitor the use of social media by students. Meanwhile, they should strive to reduce exposure time to social media by students. This study will help schools to better address the root causes of student indiscipline and thus enhance learning in their institutions.
Social media are technologies that facilitate social interaction, make possible collaboration and enable deliberation across stakeholders. The study sought to develop strategies for managing the influence of social media on students’ discipline in secondary schools. The objective of this paper is to determine the extent to which social media has influenced students’ discipline in schools based on the research. The study utilized the pragmatic philosophical paradigm and the mixed methods research design where both positivists and constructivists approaches and techniques were combined. The study was undertaken in Bungoma County in Kenya. It was carried out in 306 secondary schools in the County targeting a population of 19,000 Form 3 students. Scott Smith`s formula was used to determine the sample size of 600 students from 40 secondary schools as respondents. Purposive sampling was applied to select the 40 deputy principals and 40 heads of guidance and counselling departments from the selected secondary schools as respondents in the study. Three categories of boys’, girls’ and mixed schools were chosen from each sub-county. The questionnaires used had both closed- and open-ended items. Interviews were also used to get more information for the study. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to analyse data. Social media was found to have influenced students’ discipline negatively in schools. The study recommended that parents, educational and political leaders should implement policies on limiting social media influence on students’ discipline. It is expected that the Kenya Ministry of Education and other education stakeholders will utilize the results of the study to manage the influence of the social media on students’ discipline in secondary schools.
Influence of Teaching Methods on Students’ Performance in Kiswahili Poetry in Secondary Schools in Lugari Sub-County, Kenya (Published)
The 2002 revised curriculum for Kiswahili for secondary school education in Kenya incorporated content on poetry. Students have continually performed poor in Kiswahili paper 102/3 in Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education (KCSE) with the poetry section being the most failed. The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of instructional methodology on students’ performance in poetry in Kiswahili in Kenyan secondary schools, taking a case of Lugari Sub-County. The objective of this paper is to present and discuss the research findings on the methods and teaching resources used by teachers of Kiswahili in teaching poetry. The study was based on Dale’s cone of experience theory which states that learners retain more information by what they ‘’do’’ as opposed to what they ‘’hear’’, ‘’read’’ or ‘’observe.’’ The study adopted a survey research design. It targeted secondary schools in Lugari Sub-County, Kakamega County in Kenya. The researcher used stratified sampling to place schools into three strata; four schools per strata were sampled making a total of twelve schools with twelve teachers of Kiswahili from the sampled schools. Purposive sampling was used to sample Form Three students. Data were collected using two sets of questionnaires, observation checklist, and document analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the obtained data and findings placed under themes. It was found that oral questioning and lecture methods dominated poetry in Kiswahili lessons. Therefore, the research recommends that teachers of Kiswahili should explore a variety of interactive teaching methods to enhance students’ mastery of content.
Extent of Students’ Involvement in Sports Betting In Public Secondary Schools in Mumias East Sub-County, Kenya (Published)
Effective curriculum implementation can be challenging in an environment where other factors are competing for the learners’ attention. One such factor in Kenya is sports betting. The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of students’ involvement in betting on learning process among secondary schools in Mumias-East Sub-County, Kenya. Based on the study, this paper presents and discusses the findings on the extent of students’ involvement in betting. A causal-comparative design was used in the study. Respondents included 369 students, 206 parents and 21 class teachers obtained by stratified random sampling. Data was obtained by use of questionnaires, and analysed using frequencies, means and percentages. The study found that 30.9% (n=369) of students were involved in sports betting. Therefore, there is high student involvement in betting, with more male students involved than female students. Most parents are not aware of whether or not their children engage in betting. Majority of students who bet own personal phones. Those who bet lose their bets more times than they win. Based on the results of the study, the Kenya government should review gambling regulations and legislation to include laws that prohibit school-going students from betting, since most students who bet are aged 18 years and above, meaning that they enjoy legal protection albeit being school students.
Social Networking and Participation as Predictors of Teachers Emotional Intelligence in Public Secondary Schools in Rivers State (Published)
The study investigated social networking and participation as predictors of teachers’ emotional intelligence in public secondary schools in Rivers State. Two objectives, two research questions as well as two hypotheses were postulated to guide the study. The design for the study was correlational design. The population of the study comprised all the 16,743 public secondary school teachers in Rivers State out of which 376 teachers were sampled for the study through multi-stage sampling technique. Two questionnaires which were a 35-tem questionnaire titled “Social Capital Investment Scale” (SCIS) as well as 40-item questionnaire titled Emotional Intelligence Scale” (EIS) were the instruments used for the collection of data for the study. The questionnaires were validated by three experts in the area of Measurement and Evaluation, Department of Psychology, Guidance and Counseling, Faculty of Education, University of Port Harcourt. However, for the reliability, Cronbach Alpha was used to determine the internal consistency of the questionnaires with reliability co-efficients of 0.76 and 0.83 for the sections of the independent variable and 0.96 for the dependent variable. The research questions were answered using Pearson Product Moment Correlation while the hypotheses were tested using z-ratio at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study showed that there was a positive relationship between social networking and teacher’s emotional intelligence. Similarly, a positive relationship exists between social participation and teachers’ emotional intelligence in public secondary schools in Rivers State. It was recommended that school administrators should endeavor to organize social activities among teachers, parents and students as often as possible to encourage teachers’ participation and freedom of association should be promoted in order to strengthen social networking in these schools.
The impact of educational administration and school administration on the achievement of secondary school students (Published)
The study aimed to identify the impact of educational administration and school administration on the achievement of secondary school students. To achieve the objectives of the study, the researcher followed the analytical descriptive approach. The questionnaire was also prepared to answer the study questions. The study sample consisted of (20) students from Al Jazza Secondary Mixed School. To a number of results, the most important of which was the existence of a statistically significant impact on the educational and school administration in raising students’ achievement.
This paper investigated the maintenance culture of public primary and secondary school in Edo State. The main objective of the study was to examine the causes of poor maintenance culture of public primary and secondary schools buildings in Edo state. To guide the study three research questions were raised and answered and descriptive research design was adopted for the study. A research designed questionnaire titled, “Analysis of maintenance culture in public primary and secondary schools in Edo State” was used to collect relevant data from respondents. The Cronbach alpha was use to test for the internal consistency of the items in the questionnaire. It gave an acceptable reliability of . The data obtained were analysed using descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation. The result indicated that, poor funding by state government, the effect of the poor value system of the community members around the school environment, and poor school management were the causes of poor maintenance culture of public primary and secondary school building in Edo State. It was therefore concluded that, the government should expedites action on funding and also create public awareness on the importance of maintaining school building. The paper recommended that, government should set up supervisory committee who will pay pertinent attention, and manage public primary and secondary school buildings in the state.
Assessment of Information Communication Technology Proficiency of Secondary School Teachers in Edo State, Nigeria (Published)
This study attempts to assess of information communication technology proficiency of secondary school teachers in Edo State, Nigeria. The study employed a descriptive survey method and questionnaire was the instrument used for data collection. The total population for the study is one hundred and twenty nine (129) secondary schools teachers in four selected secondary schools in Etsako west local government area of Edo state. The population of this study is not too large and as such the entire population was taken as representative sample using purposeful sampling technique. It was revealed from the study that ICT is not employed for teaching by majority of the teachers in the secondary schools studied, most teachers have negative attitude towards the use of ICT, a majority of the secondary school teachers studied have positive perception of perceived ease of teaching and learning with ICT and Lack of ICT facilities in secondary schools, lack of commitment from government and school management, lack of motivation and training, lack of ICT policies in secondary schools, lack of technical support from government and private sector, lack of qualified teachers to teach ICT and Teachers’ anxiety over being replaced by technology are the major factors militating against teachers readiness and effective use of ICT in secondary schools in Etsako West Local Government Area of Edo state. The study recommends that Government should be committed to full implementation of ICT in secondary schools by way formulating policies and implementing the existing one if any with all sincerity.
Effect of Academic-Related Stress on Student Indiscipline in Secondary Schools In Eldoret East Sub-County, Kenya (Published)
Many factors contribute to student indiscipline in schools. Some of these factors emanate from the school environment. In light of this fact, the study was designed to establish the key school environment contributors and solutions to rowdiness among secondary school students in Eldoret East Sub-County. Based on the study, this paper discusses the findings on the effect of academic stress on indiscipline practices among secondary schools students in Eldoret East Sub-County. The study was led by Social Control Theory. Ex-post facto research design was used in the study. The target populace of the research included 3480 form three students and 54 deputy principals in public secondary schools in Eldoret East Sub County. Stratified and simple random sampling techniques were adopted to pick a sample of 346 students to take part in the study. Census approach method was considered in which all the 54 deputy principals took part in the study. Questionnaires and interview schedule were used as data collection instruments. Data collected was analysed in both descriptive and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics was evaluated in form of frequencies, percentages, average and standard variation. Analysis of Variance was used to examine the hypotheses. The study also established that academic stress (F [47, 273] = 2.001, p = .000) had an effect on indiscipline’s cases among secondary school students. The study concluded that academic stress had an effect on indiscipline cases among secondary school students. The study, therefore, recommended that the schools should reduce academic stress by providing adequate time for relaxation to help reduce cases of indiscipline cases in secondary schools in Eldoret East Sub-County.
Principals’ Administrative and Supervisory Roles for Teachers’ Job Effectiveness in Secondary Schools in Rivers State (Published)
The study investigated principals’ administrative and supervisory roles for teachers’ job effectiveness in secondary schools in Rivers State. Two research questions and two hypotheses guided the study. Descriptive survey was adopted while the population of the study was 8452 teachers of secondary schools in the state. The sample size of 265 teachers which represent 3.1% of the entire population was drawn through cluster sampling technique. A questionnaire titled principal’s administrative and supervisory roles for teachers’ job effectiveness Questionnaire (PASTJEQ) was developed and used for data collection. The research questions were answered using mean (), mean set (), standard deviation (Sd) and rank order statistics to answer the research questions, while the null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance using the z-test statistics. The findings among others are as follows: principals engage in staff personnel administration and providing assistance on instructional activities to teachers in Rivers State. It was recommended among others that Principals should adopt modern supervisory techniques that are more human and government should initiate a periodic training for principals on administrative roles performance.
Contribution of School-Based Income Generating Activities in Quality Education Provision in Secondary Schools Managed by the Catholic Diocese of Moshi, Tanzania (Published)
The purpose of this study was to find out the contribution of school-based income generating activities (IGAs) in quality education provision in secondary schools managed by the Catholic Diocese of Moshi (CDM). This study was conducted in October, 2017 in 12 secondary schools managed by the CDM comprising 8 co-education, 2 girls and 2 boys’ secondary schools. The study adopted a quantitative approach under a cross-sectional survey research design. A sample size of 252 respondents was selected to be part of this study; this included a total of 168 Students and 72 Teachers using stratified and simple random sampling. The study also automatically involved 12 Heads of schools. Data was collected through self-administering Questionnaires to the Heads of schools, Teachers and Students; and Document Analysis Schedule for examine Form Four National Examination results from secondary schools selected as a sample of the study. The data obtained was analyzed through Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 14, into percentages and frequencies; and presented by using tables. The results of this study indicated that; crops, vegetable and poultry farming were the main school-based IGAs in secondary schools managed by the CDM; provision of teaching and learning materials as the most contribution of school-based IGAs to the secondary schools managed by the CDM; lack of entrepreneurship skills among the school-based IGAs stakeholders was the main challenge affecting Heads of Schools in management of school-based IGAs in secondary schools managed by the CDM; and finally a suggestion of creation of awareness and cooperation’s among the school-based IGAs stakeholders were the main possible solution to challenges facing Heads of Schools in management of school-based IGAs in the secondary schools managed by the CDM. This study concluded that school-based IGAs are very useful alternative ways of producing additional funds as they enable secondary schools managed by the CDM to solve financial problems. The study recommended that; Heads of Schools, Teachers and Students should be given special entrepreneurship training on transparence and accountability before the design and implementation of any school-based IGAs in secondary schools managed by the CDM.
Assessing the Assessors from the Student Angle: Implication for Quality Assurance in Public Secondary Schools in Lagos Mainland Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria (Published)
Visionary teachers are needed to achieve quality teaching and learning in the school. It is now firmly believed that the effective functioning of an organization depends largely on employees’ efforts that extend beyond formal role requirements. This study therefore investigated the predictive power of some quality assurance indices (school climate, principals’ leadership role, instructional supervision, availability and utilization of instructional resources) on teachers’ job effectiveness in secondary schools. Five hundred and eighty-three (583) Senior Secondary School students comprising of 268 males and 315 females were sampled for this study. Self-developed instrument tagged “Quality Assurance in Education” was employed to obtain responses from the participants. Analyses of data were done using descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis fixed at the .05 significant levels. Results revealed 16% of the variance in the teachers’ job effectiveness was accounted for by the combination of instructional supervision, instructional resources, school climate, and principal leadership ((R = .817; R2 = .667; R2 (adj) = .663; F(4,582) = 20.376; p < .05). This revealed that among others that school climate was the most potent predictor (β = .300; t = 7.354; p < .05), followed by principal leadership style; (β = .279; t = 5.897; p <. 05), instructional supervision (β = .151; t = 5.098; p > .05); and lastly by instructional resources (β = .093; t = 3.765; p > .05). The findings showed that students’ assessment based on the quality assurance indices were potent in the prediction of teachers’ job effectiveness. Based on the outcome of this study, it was recommended that Since the work environment is significantly related to job effectiveness of teachers, government should encourage the support of parents, students, philanthropists, and corporate institutions in improving secondary schools’ work environment in terms of physical facilities, information services, authority-staff relationship, and staff development in order to enhance better job performance of the teachers.
Effect of Instructional Strategies on the Teaching and Acquisition of Listening Skills in Kiswahili Language (Published)
The research investigated the influence of the instructional process on the teaching and acquisition of listening skills in Kiswahili language. Informed by the study, this paper explores how the instructional strategies used influence the teaching and acquisition of listening skills in Kiswahili language in Kenyan secondary schools. The study used a sample of 13 secondary schools purposively selected from a total of 41 secondary schools in Wareng’ District, Kenya. Thirteen (13) teachers of Kiswahili and 130 Form Two learners of Kiswahili formed the respondents. The research was a descriptive survey since it set out to discover, describe and interpret existing conditions focusing on secondary school teachers of Kiswahili and Form Two learners. To collect data an interview schedule and an observation schedule were used. The 13 teachers were interviewed, the 130 learners participated in a Focus Group Discussion while 13 Kiswahili lessons were observed and tape-recorded. Analysed data was presented using frequency tables, percentages, graphs and charts. The study found that poor teaching strategies used in the teaching of listening in Kiswahili language is one of the main causes of the poor levels of language acquisition. In view of the findings, this study recommends that teachers of Kiswahili should build into their classrooms listening activities that have as much of the characteristics of real life listening as possible. One of the research implication of this study is that a study should be conducted in teacher training institutions to determine the effectiveness of teacher education programs in preparing teachers of Kiswahili in the teaching of listening skills.
Correlation between Instructional Leadership and Students’ Academic Achievement in Public Secondary Schools in Baringo County, Kenya (Published)
The significance of instructional leadership as it relates to students academic performance has assumed greater importance in education today as stakeholders demand for greater accountability. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between instructional leadership and student achievement, considering the dismal academic performances of students in public secondary schools in Baringo County. The study adopted the cross sectional survey research design. The target population of the study was 1070 secondary school teachers from 122 public secondary schools. A sample size of 291 teachers was selected using stratified and simple random sampling techniques. Data was collected by use of questionnaire and Document analysis. Frequencies and percentages were used to summarize and describe data whereas the Spearman correlation analysis was used to establish relationship of the variables in the study.
Teachers’ perception of the roles of guidance counsellors in secondary schools in rivers state (Published)
The study investigated teachers’ perception of the roles of Guidance Counsellors in secondary schools in Rivers State, Nigeria. Simple random sampling technique was adopted to select three hundred and seventy (370) male and female secondary school teachers from a population of five thousand three hundred school teachers. The “School Teachers’ Perception of Guidance Counsellors Rating Scale” (STPRGCRS) was administered to the respondents to collect necessary data. The t-test statistics was used to test three null hypotheses at 0.05 significance level. The findings revealed that there were no significant differences in teachers’ perception of the role of Guidance counsellors in secondary school in Rivers State. Therefore, the three null hypotheses were accepted. Based on the above findings six (6) recommendation were made: (1)The Government of Rivers State should endearvour to establish counselling units in each secondary schools, and should be functional to meet the needs of students. (2) Qualified counsellors from accredited colleges and universities, with minimum qualification of bachelor in Guidance and counselling or psychology. (3) Counsellors should focus on counselling students as their primary functions. (4) Counsellors should hold staffing with parents, students and teachers as time will permit in each school session. (5) Counsellors should strictly observe confidentiality as code of ethics. (6) Counsellor should be able to refer students with major emotional problems to the appropriate helping professionals.
Drug Use Challenges Facing Student Leaders in Discipline Management in Secondary Schools in Kosirai Division, Kenya (Published)
Student leaders in school play a very important role in enhancing discipline among the students. However, they often face a lot of indiscipline challenges from the students, making it difficult for them to perform their management duties in school. Based on a study conducted in Kosirai Division, Nandi County, Kenya, this paper examines the drug use related challenges facing student leaders in discipline management. The study employed a descriptive survey design. Questionnaires, interviews and document analysis were used to collect data, which was analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively and presented in form of frequency tables. SPSS also aided the data analysis process. A total of 183 students/student leaders, 50 teachers and 12 deputy principals were sampled in the study. The study findings indicated that there was use of drugs among high school students. The student leaders also said they encountered problems when dealing with students who use drugs. Consequently, these student leaders ended up performing poorly as they tended to use much of their time dealing with discipline problems amongst drug abusers. The prevalence of drug abuse among the youth is high and therefore there should be concerted efforts by the ministry of education officials, school management and parents in general to combat the use of drugs in schools and outside school.
Constraints Principals Face in Enhancing Democratic School Governance in Kenyan Public Secondary Schools (Published)
In Kenya, democratic school leadership is becoming increasingly important as elsewhere in the world as one way of fostering democracy in the society. The Ministry of Education has come up with policies on how to enhance democracy at the school level but school principals still face major challenges in fostering democracy in the daily running of their schools. This study set out to establish the challenges principals face in enhancing democratic school governance in Kenyan Public Secondary schools. The study utilized cross-sectional descriptive survey strategy that employed mixed methods approach. The target population of the study was all principals and senior teachers, of all the 122 public secondary school in Baringo County, Kenya. The study sample was selected using stratified sampling, simple random sampling and purposive sampling techniques. Data was collected by use of questionnaire and interview schedule and were analysed both qualitatively and quantitatively
Impact of Family Structure on the Academic Performance of Secondary School Students in Yewa Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria (Published)
The intention of this study was to investigate the extent to which family structure, specifically; single parent families and two parent families affect the academic performance of secondary school students. Two hundred and twenty students of the public secondary schools in Yewa Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria were involved in the study. The Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale (MSLSS), which was designed by Suldo and Huebner (2006), was used to gather information from the students and it was conducted in a classroom environment during school period. After collecting information from the students, their scores in Mathematics and English Language (which are compulsory subjects in all secondary schools) of the second term of 2014/2015 academic session were obtained from their class teachers with the permission of the principals of the schools. The scores were then converted to Z-scores in order to ensure their reliability and validity since they were collected from different schools. Results show a significant difference in the academic performance of students from single parent families and those from two parent families. In other words, the academic performance of children from two parent families is better than those from single parent families. The implications of the findings were that parental separation should be avoided and religious leaders, counsellors as well as government must engage in enlightening parents about the importance of family structure on the life of children and in ensuring a well-ordered society.
Dilemma of indiscipline in Secondary Schools: A Case Study of Toro Local Government Area Plateau State Nigeria, Implications for Corruption and Terrorism (Published)
This research was prompted by the dilemma of indiscipline in secondary schools in Toro local government area of Plateau state. The essence of the study was to identify risk factors of indiscipline, its effects on students’ academic performance, its’ implications for teacher effectiveness and relate its’ potentials for corruption and terrorism. The purpose was to come up with more effective alternative ways to address the phenomenon. The study had six objectives. Ten research questions guided the study. The theoretical anchor was Ivan Pavlov operant conditioning theory which explains maladjusted behavior. The sampling frame was made up of 102 secondary schools, 2887 teachers and 31604 students. The survey design was adopted. The convenient sampling technique was used. The simple percentage and averages were utilized to analyze the data. The sole instrument used was a structured questionnaire. The basic suggestion advocates a rethink of the effectiveness of the teachers and the state of school environment. The government should provide scholarships at secondary and tertiary levels for deserving students, implement free education, and also explore avenues of providing lucrative jobs for graduates as motivating factors. Disciplinary cases should be referred to juvenile courts. The system of education should provide differentiated curriculum.