Tag Archives: Secondary School

Tone of School Discipline and Level of Morality among Secondary School Students in Calabar Education Zone of Cross River State, Nigeria and Need For Guidance and Counselling Interventions (Published)

The essence of this study was to investigate the influence of tone of school discipline and the level of morality among secondary school students in Calabar education zone of Cross River State, Nigeria. To guide the study, one hypothesis was formulated at 0.05 level of significance, using stratified and simple random sampling. The instrument used for data collection was questionnaire titled Tone of School Discipline and Level of Morality among Secondary School Students Questionnaire (TSDLMASSSQ). The instrument had a reliability indices ranging from 0.70 to 0.80, using Chrombach alpha reliability estimate. The study adopted ex-post facto research design and the statistical tool for data analysis were simple linear regression and t-test. The result revealed an R-squared value of .084, which means that about 8.4% of the total variation in the level of morality was explained by the variation in the tone of discipline in the school. The result revealed and F-value of 45.953 (P-value =.000). Thus, the null hypothesis was rejected in favour of the alternative. This means that there is significant influence of tone of discipline in the school on the level of morality among secondary school students. It was recommended that teachers should be counseled not to depend on the use of force, threat and punishment to foster discipline or morals as this may have adverse effect on the level of morality among student. But students should be encouraged to contact their guidance counsellor for professional counselling

Citation: Philip A. Okpechi and Ambor A.  Ogar, (2022) Tone of School Discipline and Level of Morality among Secondary School Students in Calabar Education Zone of Cross River State, Nigeria and Need For Guidance and Counselling Interventions, British Journal of Education, Vol.10, Issue 1, pp. 64-72

Keywords: Discipline, Morality, Secondary School, Students

The extent to which the Islamic jurisprudence branch of contemporary women’s issues and rulings, is included in the curriculum of religion and Islamic education for the secondary stage (Published)

The study aimed to reveal the extent to which the Islamic jurisprudence branch included the issues and provisions of contemporary women in the curriculum of Islamic education for the secondary stage.  It also aimed to explain what is meant by Islamic education and its characteristics in the school curricula, and to identify the role of the Islamic education curriculum for the secondary stage in building the student’s personality and introducing her to the issues and provisions that concern her at this stage. The two researchers used the content analysis method because it is the most appropriate approach for the subject of the study and the most appropriate to achieve its objectives. The study tool was limited to analyzing the Islamic jurisprudence branch in the Islamic education curriculum for the secondary stage that is approved for teaching in secondary schools in the Arab community in Israel. It is clear from the results of the analysis that the Islamic jurisprudence branch ignored most Issues and rulings related to contemporary women. Its goals and contents have focused on the field of worship without other fields of Islamic jurisprudence such as communications and personal status, and on one aspect of worship represented in the ritual appearance without the social and cosmic appearance.  These results confirm the weakness of the design of the Islamic jurisprudence branch in the Islamic education curriculum for the secondary stage and states how it lacks the legal issues and rulings that the student needs to know.

Citation: Faida Abu Much and  Taghread Keadan (2022) The extent to which the Islamic jurisprudence branch of contemporary women’s issues and rulings, is included in the curriculum of religion and Islamic education for the secondary stage, British Journal of Education, Vol.10, Issue 1, pp. 49-63


Keywords: Islamic Education, Islamic jurisprudence, Secondary School, contemporary issues, women's provisions

Evaluating Guidance and Counselling Utilisation among Secondary School Teachers: Rejoinders from Selected Nigerian Schools (Published)

This research contended that Guidance and Counselling transcend provision of helping services for adolescent secondary school students but encompass delivery of such supports to their teachers. It aimed to evaluate whether the latter were utilising the Services, using five research questions. Descriptive survey design was adopted, leading to random sampling of 384 constituents of the target population. A 20 item structured questionnaire (Guidance Utilisation Evaluation Scale for Teachers-GUEST) was developed and administered as research instrument. Responses were projected based on Four Likert Scale type Format, with professionals and pilot tests respectively substantiating instrument’s validity and reliability. Data were analysed using mean scores, ensuing in the  following findings: teachers supposed G and C functions as students’ services and did not utilise them; such functions were not extended to teachers as beneficiaries, but  buddies; teachers merely sought practitioners’ aids for student and school developments; there were dearth of necessary teacher-support resources in school G and C units; absence of sufficient G and C functions consciousness impeded its utilisation among teachers; they were hardly motivated to seek G and C aids from their schools’ practitioners. Ultimately, expansion of the programme’s delineation was proposed for apt erudition of counsellor facilitation and counsellee/client participation.

Keywords: Evaluation, Guidance and Counselling, Secondary School, Teachers, Utilisation., world – Africa - Nigeria

Securing Girl-child Secondary Education for Sustainable National Security: Focus on North Western Nigeria (Published)

Secondary schools, schools for the adolescents, are often place where intolerance, discrimination and violence exist, and girls are mostly at the receiving end. In this paper the concept of girl-child, security challenge, secondary school and sustainable national security were clarified. The paper also identified the types of security challenges in Nigeria which include bombings and killings, kidnapping and armed robbery attack, political and economic related assassinations. Security challenges identified to be affecting girl-child secondary education in North Western Nigeria include kidnapping and abduction, bullying and intimidations, sexual abuse and harassment, physical threats and insults. Some factors promoting security challenges in secondary schools include distance, poor facilities, lack of community cooperation, and leadership attitude to security issue.  The paper identified ways of securing girl-child education to promote sustainable national security as provision of security fence, provision of security outfit, provision of school bus, installation of CCTV cameras, and taking serious legal action against girl-child abuse related cases. The paper suggested that, like financial institutions, secondary schools should be provided with enough security personnel. It also suggested that community should be fully enlighten and involved in providing security for secondary schools especially the girls’ schools.


Keywords: Girl Child, Secondary School, sustainable national security

Effect of Adlerian Therapy on the Psychosocial Challenges of Secondary School Adolescents (Published)

This study examined the effect of Adlerian therapy on the psychosocial challenges of adolescence. Two research hypotheses were made to guide the study. The sample consisted of seventy (71) senior secondary school students. A 40 item self-developed questionnaire was designed for data collection. The study adopted a quasi-experimental control group design. Analysis of data was achieved using the Analysis of Co-variance (ANCOVA) at the level of significance of 0.05. The result of the findings showed that there is a significant effect of Adlerian therapy on the psychosocial challenges of adolescents and that age do not affect the psychosocial challenges of secondary school adolescent. Conclusions were made and some counselling implications were highlighted.

Keywords: ANCOVA, Adlerian therapy, Adolescents, Secondary School, psychosocial challenges

Determine and Estimate the Numerical Aptitude of Delta State Senior Secondary School Students (Published)

In order to determine and estimate the numerical aptitude of Delta State Senior Secondary School Students, the researcher developed a Numerical Aptitude Test (NAT). The design of the study was instrumentation research design based on the Classical Test Theory. From a population of 4,379 senior Secondary School Students in Delta State, 576 students were drawn from Senior Secondary School I & II as sample for the study. Three research question were proposed and answered. Three hypothesis were formulated and tested at 0.05 alpha levels. Data were analyzed using Kuder-Richardson formula 20, descriptive statistics and t-test. The findings showed reliability coefficient of 0.66. The result also showed that NAT items are valid and did not differentiate between genders. Based on the findings from this work, the researcher made the following recommendations: the Ministry of Education Delta State   should use the developed NAT as a tool for selecting students, also school administrators should use the developed test to get valid, reliable and usable relevant information about Senior School Student’s numerical aptitude for administrative functions.

Keywords: Delta State, Estimate, Secondary School, Students, determine, numerical aptitude

Sexual Behaviour and Attitudes to Sexual Behavioural Outcomes amongst Secondary School Students in Edo State (Published)

Senior secondary students are usually in their early and late teenage years; this period encompasses pubertal development with sexual characteristics that are explored by them. This study is thus aimed at assessing sexual behavior vis-à-vis behavioral outcomes amongst secondary school students in Edo state.  This cross sectional study was conducted on 462 students in some secondary schools in Edo state using a multistaged sampling technique. Results: The mean ages of the subjects were 15.31±3.87 and 16.11± 2.97 for females and males respectively. 33% of respondents indulge in watching sex movies; however this percentage were predominantly males accounting for 24%. This percentage was closely followed by more males (20.6%) indulging in sex than females (7.8%). At the age of 13 years males and females had the same percentages (4.6%) in terms of indulging in sexual intercourse, at 14 and 15 years more males involved in sex than females. More than half of the respondents (55.6%) reported being shy to ask for condoms for sex despite the fact that 89.6% of respondents did not approve of premarital sex. Similarly 52.8% of respondents feel shy to see a doctor or nurse when they are faced with the challenge of sexually transmitted disease. Conclusion: Males across the teenage years were more exploitative in indulging in sex than their female counterparts. We therefore recommend enlightenment on safe behavioral approach to sex and sexual outcomes amongst secondary school students to forestall unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted disease.

Keywords: Secondary School, Sexual Behavior, Students

The Effects of Single Parent on Academic Performance of Secondary School Students in Nigeria (Published)

This paper examines the effects of single parent on academic performance of secondary school students in Nigeria. Yet, it critical examination the challenges which the children of single parents encounter in secondary education. It also explain the causes of single parenting. Similarly, it stated clearly the effects of single parenting on academic achievement of secondary school students. Otherwise, it emphasis implication of single parenting on academic performance of their children in secondary education in Nigeria.

Keywords: Academic, Achievement, Implication, Secondary School, Single-Parent, Students, pterformance

Quality Assurance: The Basis for Quality Secondary Education in Nigeria (Published)

This paper examines the basis for quality assurance of secondary education in Nigeria. In fact, Nigeria is populous in Africa, but the problem of quality secondary education confronting standard of education in Nigeria. It was discovered that the products were poor quality, the poor quality was however, as a result of the multifaceted problems bedeviling the system in Nigeria such as inadequate funding, inadequate facilities, low morale of teachers, poor supervision of schools and frequent changes in educational policies. The roles of the principal in meeting these challenges were examined as the chief executive who manages the school finance and who can use his ingenuity to raise fund to complement government efforts, provision and maintenance of physical facilities, principal as a curriculum and instruction supervision, a motivator and a change facilitator. It was there recommended that modern day principal should be knowledgeable, professionally competent and resourceful. It was again recommended that government should make provision for sponsoring principals and organizing conferences for them to serve as a means for professional growth.

Keywords: Assurance, Challenges, Education, Quality, Secondary School

Relationship between Self-Concept and Attitude towards Solving Algebraic Problems among Secondary Schools Students in Sokoto State, Nigeria (Published)

Developing a positive self-concept is one of the most fundamental goal of success in life. This usually has to begin starting from early childhood to school years. This study therefore, investigated the relationship between self-concept and attitude towards solving algebraic problems among secondary school students in Sokoto state, Nigeria. Three research questions and three hypotheses guided the study. The study employed descriptive survey design. A sample of 377 senior secondary two (SSII) students was drawn from the population through proportionate random sampling technique. Two instruments were used in the study: self-concept scale (SCS) and Attitude towards Solving Algebraic Problem Scale (ASAPS). The instrument was content validated by Subject Matter Experts (SME). The reliability coefficients of SCS and ASPS were 0.77 and 0.79 respectively determined through Cronbach alpha technique for internal consistency. The findings of the study revealed that there was a significant relationship between students’ self-concept and their attitude towards solving algebraic problems. Findings also showed that there was no significant difference in male and female students’ attitude towards solving algebraic problems. It was therefore, suggested among others that teachers should give adequate and sufficient attention to developing positive self-concept in students.

Keywords: Algebra, Problem Solving, Secondary School, Self-Concept, Students

Analysis of Maintenance Culture in Public Primary and Secondary Schools in Edo State (Published)

This paper investigated the maintenance culture of public primary and secondary school in Edo State. The main objective of the study was to examine the causes of poor maintenance culture of public primary and secondary schools buildings in Edo state. To guide the study three research questions were raised and answered and descriptive research design was adopted for the study. A research designed questionnaire titled, “Analysis of maintenance culture in public primary and secondary schools in Edo State” was used to collect relevant data from respondents. The Cronbach alpha was use to test for the internal consistency of the items in the questionnaire.  It gave an acceptable reliability of . The data obtained were analysed using descriptive statistics of mean and standard deviation. The result indicated that, poor funding by state government, the effect of the poor value system of the community members around the school environment, and poor school management were the causes of poor maintenance culture of public primary and secondary school building in Edo State. It was therefore concluded that, the government should expedites action on funding and also create public awareness on the importance of maintaining school building.  The paper recommended that, government should set up supervisory committee who will pay pertinent attention, and manage public primary and secondary school buildings in the state.

Keywords: Maintenance Culture, Primary School, Secondary School, public schools

Assessment of Secondary School Science Teachers’ Knowledge of Climate Change in the South East Nigeria, For Inclusion in the Secondary School Curriculum. (Published)

The study assessed the Secondary School Teachers’ knowledge of climate change in the SouthEast Nigeria, for its inclusion in the Secondary School curriculum. The study adopted a survey design with a sample size of 1100 respondents drawn from the five states of the South East Nigeria. Five research questions and one null hypothesis guided the study. The instrument for data collection was a questionnaire containing sixty one (61) items, which was subjected to reliability test using Cronbach Alpha statistics. It yielded a coefficient index of 0.83. Mean and Standard deviation were used to answer the research questions, while t-test statistics was used to test the hypothesis. The results of the findings showed that the secondary school science teachers in the SouthEast Nigeria possess high level awareness and knowledge of topics on climate change, it effect on human beings, animals, plants, environment and the causes. Also there was unanimous  agreement by the Secondary School Science teachers that climate change studies should be included in the secondary school curriculum. Based on the findings the following recommendations were made: Nigeria Government should develop syllabi on climate change and include it in  the secondary school curriculum, train and retrain Secondary School Science Teachers, and develop Teachers’ guide books. The researchers equally recommended that Government of Nigeria can adopt or adapt the contents of Climate Change highlighted in this study.

Keywords: Climate, Secondary School, Teacher, climate change and curriculum.

Extent of Hand Washing Practice among Secondary School Students in Ebonyi State, Nigeria (Published)

High incidence of diarrhoeal diseases has been noted among secondary school students in Nigeria. The place of contaminated hands in the transmission of these diseases especially living quarter with close proximity like schools has been observed. These diseases can be prevented if students wash their hands with running water and soap. This cross-sectional survey was designed to determine to what extent secondary school students in Ebonyi State practice proper handwashing. The sample comprised 420 male and female students in both junior and senior classes selected through a multi-sampling method from government schools, located in both urban and rural area of the Ebonyi State were used for the study. The instrument for data collection was a 3-point scaled, 18-item self-structured questionnaire eliciting responses on extent of handwashing with soap and running water in 15 situations requiring handwashing. Face validation of the instrument was obtained by the judgement of 5 experts. The reliability of the instrument was determined using Cronbach Alpha, which yielded 0.862 reliability coefficient. The copies of the questionnaire were distributed among the students at an agreed upon time with the school by trained research assistance. The extent of handwashing practice was determined using the criterion means of 2.01-3.0 as high extent, 1.01-2.0 as low extent and 0.1-1.0 as very low extent. T-test statistic was used to test the hypotheses at 0.05 alpha level. The extent of handwashing was found to be low among secondary school students with a mean score of 1.31. It was found that male students practice handwashing significantly higher than their female counterparts and that there was no significant difference in handwashing practice of student by level of study of students and by location of residence of the students. The findings of the study have implications for the handwashing campaign in Nigeria, the health of the students, method of health education and hygiene education curriculum development. Recommendations were made which included that handwashing be promoted using the mass media, improvement on hygiene education curriculum and its delivery and provision of handwashing facilities for schools to concretize learning.

Keywords: Gender, Handwashing, Hygiene, Location, Secondary School, Students, practice

Gender and Academic Achievement of Secondary School Students in Social Studies in Abakaliki Urban Of Ebonyi State (Published)

The study focused on gender and academic achievement of secondary school students in Social Studies. Two research questions such as; what is the effect of gender on students’ mean achievement, and effect of teachers’ gender on the mean achievement of male and female students and null hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The population of this study comprised of three thousand four hundred seventy-nine (3,479) Junior Secondary School II (JSS II) students selected from all the secondary schools in Abakaliki urban of Ebonyi State. The instrument used for data collection was Social Studies Achievement Test (SOSAT), data were analyzed using mean and standard deviation for all research questions, and analysis of co-variance (ANCOVA) was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The findings of the study revealed that the mean achievement score of female secondary school students was higher than the mean achievement scores of male students. The findings of the study also revealed that: male and female secondary school students taught Social Studies by male teachers obtained higher mean scores than male and female students taught Social studies by female teachers and female students taught Social studies by male teacher performed better than masculine students taught Social Studies by male teacher and vice versa. The study also reviewed that there are significant different in the mean achievement of secondary school students in Social Studies based on gender. Based on these findings, the researcher recommended that Social Studies teachers should re-assess their classroom instructional practice because there is a need for them to shift from instructional practice that will give the students equal opportunities to excel in instructional activities.

Keywords: Gender, Secondary School, Students’ Achievement and Social Studies

Tense And Aspect In The Era Of Competence-Based English Language Teaching in Cameroon’s Secondary Schools (Published)

This paper seeks to show the significance that should be given to tense and aspect as central grammatical features attached to the verb phrase, on the postulate that if tense and aspect are not mastered by the learners of English, in particular and the languages in general, they never build an acceptable sentence in the target language. Analysing the challenges that a French-speaking learner of English in particular can face with tense and aspect, the hypotheses were verified through two tests for 180 students in four secondary schools in Dschang. It became obvious that the target population had a serious problem with tense and aspect. Now what place should be given to tense and aspect in a new era where knowing the language is pushed to the background but not suppressed, and acting effectively with the language is the new order of the day?

Keywords: Aspect, Competence, Errors, Language Teaching, Secondary School, Tense

Investigating the Availability and the Extent of Use of Instructional Materials by Secondary School Chemistry Teachers in Nigeria (Published)

This study focused on level of utilization of available instructional materials, teacher made instructional materials and the obstacles faced by the chemistry teachers during improvisation of the teacher made instructional materials in Ebonyi State secondary schools.397 chemistry teachers from the 212 government owned secondary schools in Ebonyi State formed the population. Because of the small size of the population, no sampling was done. Questionnaire was the instrument used for data collection; it was validated by 3 experts from Science Education Department, one expert from Measurement and Evaluation and the other 2 from chemistry education. The reliability of the instrument was determined to be 0.81. Descriptive survey research design was adopted for the study. 3 research questions and one hypothesis guided the study. The 3 research questions were answered using mean statistics while the hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significance using the z-test statistics. The findings revealed that teachers are not utilizing effectively the available instructional materials in their teaching, the chemistry teachers are not making enough efforts in improvisation of those instructional materials that are not available and that the teachers faced obstacles such as lack of fund and skill for the improvisation of instructional materials. Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made a number of recommendations that would help the teachers in their instructional delivery.

Keywords: Chemistry, Education, Instructional Materials, Secondary School

Alternative Sources of Financing Secondary Education in Ebonyi State by the School Administrators (Published)

In discussing this topic, Ocho (2005) defined education and the need for education. Okanamiri (2002) also defined education financing as a branch of knowledge that deals with important examination of the cost and expenditure in the production of education services. Various alternative sources of financing secondary education according to various authorities were explained to include: PTA, proceeds from the school farm, Donations, Endowments, Community Involvement, Fund raising activities, Old Students Associations etc. Conclusion and recommendation were made

Keywords: Education, Finance, Secondary School

Keeping Of Teachers’ Records and Principals’administrative Effectiveness in Akwa Ibom State Secondary Schools, Nigeria. (Published)

The study examined the relationship between keeping of teachers’ records and administrative effectiveness of principals in public secondary schools in Uyo Local Education Committee of Akwa Ibom State. One research question was raised and a corresponding null hypothesis was formulated to guide the study. Expost facto research design was used, because the variables were not manipulated. The population consisted of 14 principals in the 14 public secondary schools in Uyo Local Education Committee. All the 14 principals were used as purposive sample for this research. A researcher developed instrument titled Keeping of Teachers’ Records and Administrative Effectiveness Questionnaire (KTRAEQ)’was used for data collection. The reliability of the questionnaire was determined using cronbach Alpha method and the reliability coefficient of 0.743 was obtained, implying that the instrument was adequate to measure what it was meant for. Simple linear regression statistic was used to answer the research question and to test the hypotheses at .05 level of significance. The findings revealed that there is a significant relationship between keeping of financial records, teachers’ records, students’ records and administrative effectiveness of principals of public secondary schools in Uyo Local Education Committee. It was concluded that principals should always ensure that teachers’ records are accurately and adequately kept and updated for immediate and future use. It was recommended based on the findings of the study among others that, the ministry, state secondary education board, as well as the Local Education Committees should inspect schools regularly to ensure that school principals keep teachers’ records up-to-date.

Keywords: Administration, Education, Nigeria, Secondary School, Teacher

The Challenges Facing Secondary School Principals as Human Resource Managers (HRMS) In Line of Duty: A Case of Nandi County, Kenya (Published)

UNESCO (1996) notes that education systems nearly everywhere are managed poorly and administered inefficiently. Despite the enormous expectations of school principals, many are not fully prepared for the task. The headship of secondary schools in Kenya is usually a product of the teaching force. Teachers, who have spent a minimum of ten years in service, are usually appointed as principals and deputy principals of secondary schools. Thus years of experience remain the major yardstick for appointment into the position of principal as opposed to relevant skills and qualifications. This paper seeks to identify the many challenges faced by Principals as HRMs in performing their roles. The target population was 140 secondary school principals drawn from Nandi County. Census sampling was used to select the study sample. Data collection was done using self-administered questionnaire. Coding of responses was done using Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS). The paper points out that: empowerment of the staff, team management and career development among others, as challenges resulting from inadequate training. The study recommends introduction of HRM courses in Teacher Training Colleges.

Keywords: Challenge, Human Resource Managers, Principals, Roles, Secondary School


The present study was conducted at Lucknow District in Uttar Pradesh. The purpose of this study is to document how being perform in extra-curricular activities can influence development in academics, social skills, and high school completion. In this paper we study the possible influence of extracurricular activities on student’s performance of eighth-and ninth graders. 120 students of age group between 13 to 16 years comprised the sample of the study. Self made questionnaire for school students were administered. Data was analyzed in term of percentage and t-test analysis. The statistical analysis revealed that all the 6 types of extracurricular activities, viz. Yoga, Horse riding, Sport activities, Dance, Music and Indoor and outdoor activities together showed significant role in some extracurricular activities and Student’s performance of Government and Private School. Students who participate in extracurricular activities generally benefit from the many opportunities afforded them. Benefits of participating in extracurricular activities included having better grades, having higher standardized test scores and higher educational attainment, attending school more regularly, and having higher a higher self concept. Those who participate in out-of-school activities often have higher grade point averages, a decrease in absenteeism, and an increased connectedness to the school. Finally, we discuss the possible influence of extracurricular activities on student’s performance and whether such participation is advisable.

Keywords: Government school, Lucknowdistrict, Private school, Secondary School, Students performance, extracurricular activities