Tag Archives: Seasonal variation

Physicochemical and Microbiological Characteristics of Water Samples from the Borgu Sector of Kainji Lake National Park, Nigeria (Published)

The quality of water resources in any ecosystem provides significant information about the available resources for supporting life in such ecosystem. The study therefore assessed the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of water samples from the Borgu Sector of Kainji Lake National Park, Nigeria. The study was carried out at Borgu sector of KLNP purposively selected based on the availability of perennial waterholes. Water samples were collected from four waterholes for two seasons (dry and wet). Water samples were subjected to physicochemical [temperature, pH, total dissolved solid, electrical conductivity, total suspended solids, dissolved oxygen (DO), nitrate, chloride, phosphate, sulphate, biological oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand (COD)] and microbiological (total coliform and fungal counts) analyses using standard methods. Data collected were subjected to descriptive statistics and T-test at α0.05 and compared with WHO permissible limits. The result showed that DO and COD levels of all the water samples were above the WHO guideline while there were significant seasonal variation in the values of temperature (t=4.93), EC (t=2.46), TDS (t=2.33), nitrate (t=3.66), chloride (t=4.91) and COD (t=4.23) in the waters sampled across the seasons of sampling. Salmonella / Shigella and Staphylococcus aureus were observed to be absent while the total coliform and fungi counts were observed to be higher than the WHO permissible limit for drinking water. The presence of thermo-tolerant such as Klebsiella sp and Enterobacter sp observed in the study may be an indication of faecal contamination. Periodical monitoring of the river water quality in Kainji Lake National Park is required to protect drinking water resources, encourage recreational activities and provide a good enabling environment for wildlife.

Keywords: Anthropogenic Activities, Kainji Lake National Park, Seasonal variation, Water Quality

Diurnal and Seasonal variations in troposphere ozone level at sub-tropical station, Jabalpur, India, and relationship with meteorological Condition (Published)

Troposphere ozone measurements at Central India sub tropical site Jabalpur (located at 23°10′N 79°57′E / 23.17°N 79.95°E) India has been studied for the period from January 2015 to December 2015.Tropospheric ozone is both a greenhouse gas and harmful air pollutant, it is important to understand how anthropogenic activities may influence its abundance and distribution through the 21st century. Ambient Air Quality Monitoring System (AAQMS) is sensor based ozone monitor which in used for measurement. Temperature shows a good positive correlation whereas relative humidity shows a negative correlation with ozone. Results of this study have revealed that the annual mean of daily average surface ozone concentration varies from 11 ppb to 38 ppb. The highest average seasonal concentration was observed in summer and lowest in winter season.

Keywords: Air Pollution, Meteorological parameters, Seasonal variation, Troposphere ozone

Seasonal Variation in Hydro Chemistry of River Benue at Makurdi, Benue State Nigeria (Published)

The hydrochemistry of River Benue at Makurdi was studied for two years (July 2011-June 2013).  Water samples were collected monthly from five different Stations on the shoreline of River Benue at Makurdi. The hydrochemistry of the water samples were examined using standard methods. The results of the physico-chemical parameters indicate the river water samples with the following characteristics: conductivity ranged from 139±215.05µS/cm – 63.95±30.94µS/cm, pH varied from 6.33±0.59-6.95±0.86, TDS varied from 28.29±11.69mg/L- 69.14±106.65mg/L, TSS varied from 41.00±25.42mg/L- 87.56±57.39mg/L, colour ranged from 192.60±143.79TCU-393.01±175.73TCU, turbidity ranged from 44.53±44.28NTU – 91.38±56.54NTU, surface water temperature ranged from 28.09±1.970C – 28.99±1.630C, bicarbonate ranged from 121.98±59.13mg/L – 185.61±57.20mg/L, chloride ranged from 117.44±59.46mg/L – 173.07±71.27mg/L, nitrate ranged from 2.23±3.14mg/L – 3.76±5.22mg/L, sulphate ranged from 10.41±9.84mg/L- 17.24±15.21mg/L, phosphate ranged from 0.92±1.11mg/L- 1.47±2.07mg/L and copper ranged from 0.11±0.09mg/L- 0.31±0.34mg/L. The mean values were generally within the WHO and the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality accepted maximum limit except for colour and turbidity. The result of ANOVA for all the parameters was significant during the seasons (P˂0.05), except for TDS, TSS and temperature (P˃0.05). Across the Stations temperature, bicarbonate, nitrate, sulphate, phosphate and copper were not significant (ANOVA, P˃0.05). Generally the wet seasons had more values as compared to dry months .It is recommended that the discharged of effluents and other waste into the River Benue should be controlled and enforced

Keywords: Hydrochemistry, Makurdi, River Benue, Seasonal variation

Seasonal Variation in Hydro Chemistry of River Benue at Makurdi, Benue State Nigeria (Published)

The hydrochemistry of River Benue at Makurdi was studied for two years (July 2011-June 2013). Water samples were collected monthly from five different Stations on the shoreline of River Benue at Makurdi. The hydrochemistry of the water samples were examined using standard methods. The results of the physico-chemical parameters indicate the river water samples with the following characteristics: conductivity ranged from 139±215.05µS/cm – 63.95±30.94µS/cm, pH varied from 6.33±0.59-6.95±0.86, TDS varied from 28.29±11.69mg/L- 69.14±106.65mg/L, TSS varied from 41.00±25.42mg/L- 87.56±57.39mg/L, colour ranged from 192.60±143.79TCU-393.01±175.73TCU, turbidity ranged from 44.53±44.28NTU – 91.38±56.54NTU, surface water temperature ranged from 28.09±1.970C – 28.99±1.630C, bicarbonate ranged from 121.98±59.13mg/L – 185.61±57.20mg/L, chloride ranged from 117.44±59.46mg/L – 173.07±71.27mg/L, nitrate ranged from 2.23±3.14mg/L – 3.76±5.22mg/L, sulphate ranged from 10.41±9.84mg/L- 17.24±15.21mg/L, phosphate ranged from 0.92±1.11mg/L- 1.47±2.07mg/L and copper ranged from 0.11±0.09mg/L- 0.31±0.34mg/L. The mean values were generally within the WHO and the Nigerian Standard for Drinking Water Quality accepted maximum limit except for colour and turbidity. The result of ANOVA for all the parameters was significant during the seasons (P˂0.05), except for TDS, TSS and temperature (P˃0.05). Across the Stations temperature, bicarbonate, nitrate, sulphate, phosphate and copper were not significant (ANOVA, P˃0.05). Generally the wet seasons had more values as compared to dry months .It is recommended that the discharged of effluents and other waste into the River Benue should be controlled and enforced.

Keywords: Hydrochemistry, Makurdi, River Benue, Seasonal variation