Tag Archives: : Scale

Development and Validation of the Intrapersonal Peace Scale (Published)

This work reports on a new scale, the Intrapersonal Peace Scale. The report is in four phases: Initial validation of the scale, involving 303 undergraduates; Confirmatory Factor Analysis, involving 2, 677 community sample; Concurrent validity of the scale, involving 77 undergraduates, and Norms, age and gender differences in intrapersonal peace, involving 5009 respondents. The author used Factor and Item Analyses, Pearson correlation coefficients and Analysis of Variance for data analysis. The Scale has three factors. The factors are: 1. Intrapersonal Harmony, 2. Intrapersonal Disequilibrium, and 3. Intrapersonal Dissonance. The three factors were confirmed via Confirmatory Factor Analysis with good indices. The scale correlated significantly with various constructs, namely: anxiety, depression, psychological wellbeing, spiritual intelligence and assertiveness, and there are age and gender differences in intrapersonal peace. The new scale, which is a major contribution to peace research, can be used in clinical and research contexts to evaluate people’s inward peacefulness.

Citation: Euckie Udo Immanuel (2022) Development and Validation of the Intrapersonal Peace Scale, British Journal of Psychology Research, Vol.10, No.1, pp. 36-51


Keywords: : Scale, Peace, Reliability, intra-personal, validity

Assessing Young Children’s Social Competence: The Greek Version of the Social Competence Scale for Preschoolers-Parent Version (Published)

Successful social functioning in the kindergarten is related to future academic success and is regarded as one of the basic goals of the curriculum. Assessment of social competence is therefore critical to identify children at risk for poor outcomes and to provide evidence for the effectiveness of relevant activities and programs. Parents are considered quite reliable informants regarding children’s social competence and measurements should include relevant behaviors that may develop regardless context and situation. The purpose of present study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Greek version of the Social Competence Scale-Parent version (SCS-P), taking into account that relevant robust measures of social competence are lacking with reference to the Greek context. Mothers of 913 children attending public kindergartens, aged 4-6 years, participated in the study, from 33 prefectures of Greece. Exploratory factor analysis revealed two robust and reliable factors. Only two items did not load onto the expected factor showing the value-laden and culture specific nature of social competence. 


Keywords: : Scale, Greece, Kindergarten, Parents, social competence

Statistical Analysis: Internal-Consistency Reliability and Construct Validity (Published)

In testing a proposed model of any academic field, huge extents of data are collected and analyzed through a proposed or adopted scale by researchers.  It is very significant to test the reliability and the construct validity of this scale.   This study aims to explore the important strategies or tools that should be followed to achieve a reliable and valid scale. It also aims to study the two concepts in association with scale testing as well as to afford a snapshot of the recent understandings of the reliability and validity of scale tests as expressed in previous research studies. This paper emphasis mainly on the theoretical and practical parts of reliability, and the affiliation between the two perceptions. Seeking to synthesize research results about the construct validity and internal-consistency reliability of items (factors), we focus on the four main measurements: Cronbach’s alpha, inter- item correlation, corrected item – total correlation, and Cronbach’s alpha if item deleted.  These measurements would provide researchers with a clear knowledge about purifying the survey’s scale before using it in collecting the data set. This kind of research is required so that a complete understanding of the construct validity and internal – consistency reliability of items is realized. 

Keywords: : Scale, Construct, Cronbach’s Alpha, Internal-Consistency, Reliability, validity