Tag Archives: Saudi Arabia

Identity Loss in the Strict Religious Context of Saudi Arabian Schools (Published)

Saudi Arabia is experiencing an era of policy reform across different government departments, including the education system. However, these plans have attracted criticism from those who see these new educational paradigms as a threat to the vitality of the Islamic identity that characterizes conservative members of Saudi society. Adopting a descriptive discursive approach, this paper sheds light on the objections raised to the changes and considers whether fears that such reforms constitute attempts to reconstruct the religious ident, ity of the younger generation via the public-school curriculum are justified. The analysis shows that these reconstructive attempts can be seen as a way of exposing children to an unfamiliar culture by supplying teaching materials laden with ideological content, allowing a new policy of mixed-sex education, and reintroducing the teaching of previously banned subjects.

Citation: Khalid Hudhayri (2021) Identity Loss in the Strict Religious Context of Saudi Arabian Schools, British Journal of Education, Vol. 9, Issue 11, pp.16-22



Keywords: English Language, Identity, Islam, Music, Saudi Arabia, gender-mixed education

English Language Teaching in Saudi Arabia: A Book Review (Published)

English Language Teaching in Saudi Arabia: An Introduction is a book by Yousif A. N. Alshumaimeri published in 2019 in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The first part of the book provides an overview of the study of the English language. The second part analyses the various approaches and teaching methods used in English language instruction. At the end of each chapter, discussion activities for teachers and students are outlined. English is currently being taught in most public learning institutions worldwide. Despite this, there are not enough books available to assist international student teachers from various backgrounds and cultures with different first languages who are studying to be English teachers. Alshumaimeri’s book identifies several methods and approaches that can be used when teaching English, discusses their advantages and disadvantages and describes the roles of teachers and students in these methods. While it targets students of English, this book provides a rich history of teaching English as a foreign language in Saudi Arabia. These factors make the book relevant for student teachers of English.

Keywords: EFL, English language teaching, Saudi Arabia, Teacher Education, Teaching Methods, Undergraduate Students

A community-based prediabetes knowledge assessment among Saudi adults in Al-Ahsa region, 2018 (Published)

Diabetes is a major growing public health issue and prediabetes has been considered to be a reversible condition. The purpose of the present study was to assess knowledge of prediabetes and its risk factors for the community in the Al-Ahsa region. A cross-sectional community-based study was conducted in the Al-Ahsa region from mid-to-late December, 2018. Of the 812 respondents who gave consent to participate in the interview; 13.2% of the respondents reported that they had diabetes. Among the respondents, 87.1% had a high level of knowledge of prediabetes, while 12.9% had low-to moderate knowledge. Overall, there was a statistically significant association between age and prediabetes knowledge (𝑥2 = 5.006, 𝑝 = 0.025). Occupation also showed a significant statistical association with prediabetes knowledge (𝑥2 = 9.85, 𝑝 = 0.02). People in Al-Ahsa demonstrated a high level of knowledge regarding some risk factors for prediabetes. However, there were a number of deficiencies in the knowledge of prediabetes risk factors and preventive measures as well as in general knowledge of prediabetes, which may lead to a high prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes.

Keywords: Al-Ahsa, Community, Knowledge, Prediabetes, Saudi Arabia

Why do early childhood education enrolment rates appear to remain stagnant in Saudi Arabia? (Published)

This report aims to analyze the importance of Early Childhood Education (ECE) in Saudi Arabia and why the enrolment rates of children at this age have not been growing and remain significantly low as opposed to other countries around the world.  This report discusses why Saudi Arabia continues to struggle with and has not been able to recognize and encompass ECE as a vital stage to begin learning. I looked into Saudi Arabia’s ECE past and present enrolment rates and the current vision for ECE based on the Saudi Vision 2030. In addition, I compared Saudi Arabia’s governance and access to ECE and pre-service education and recruitment policies for ECE educators with the UK.  Furthermore, I highlighted the implications of not taking advantage of ECE services on global assessments at later stages of learning based on secondary source data from these internationally recognized assessments – Trends in International Maths and Science Study (TIMMS), The Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) and Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA).  The evidence gathered in this report portrays that Saudi Arabia should modify their ECE policies and framework to achieve its Saudi Vision 2030 goals.  It also reviews the UK’s ECE policies, which Saudi Arabia can consider using as a model to reform its policies and increase their enrolment rate at this stage.

Keywords: Early Childhood Education, Saudi Arabia, Teaching, Vision 2030, enrolment, preschool education

The Impact of Coronavirus (Covid 19) On the Economy in the Kingdom Of Saudi Arabia: A Review (Published)

Ever since the appearance of the coronavirus, a state of intense anticipation arose over its evolution until it began sweeping through a large number of countries in the world and became a global epidemic, threatening all societies and peoples. The spread of such epidemics will necessarily have economic, political, and social implications. With the spread of this virus, the economic interests of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia will be negatively affected in many sectors, including tourism and many others, as well as low oil prices. This article focuses on the negative impact of the coronavirus on the economy in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, and how the Kingdom has tried to get out of this crisis and confront it, as well as plans for life after the coronavirus.

Keywords: COVID-19, Management, Policy, Saudi Arabia, coronavirus

The Impact of the Rising Costs of Gasoline on Automobiles Owners in Saudi Arabia (Published)

This research objective is to study the behavior of people and cars users to determine the changing trends and behaviors of customers caused by the new revised prices of oil derivatives and gasoline that was supported by the Saudi Arabian government for a very long period. A survey sample of 361 users was collected randomly within the 2 major cities on the western region of Saudi Arabia; Makkah and Jeddah through survey monkey using structured questionnaire. Data were gathered, analyzed with suitable statistics and later on interpreted accordingly.  It was found that more than 35% survey participant are not changing their cars driving habits, regardless of the rising cost of gasoline – on the other hand, the taken sample certainly showed a reasonable interest towards the consideration of using economy cars- perhaps, electrical/hybrid cars market has a big near future as a potential market.  It is also significant to mention that this paper may be beneficial in revealing another field of studies especially for cars companies to know the purchasing power of local consumers.


Keywords: Saudi Arabia, automobiles owners, gasoline, rising costs

An Ideological Perspective on Competing Languages and Identities: The Case of Arabic and English in Saudi Arabia (Published)

The spread of English is being promoted as an important driver of social and economic development (Pennycook, 2009, p.116). However, this view can be “misguided”, as English can also be problematic, a source of inequality, and a “formidable obstacle to education” (Tollefson, 2000, p. 9). In this sense, the spread of English is seen as a form of the “linguistic imperialism” in which English enjoys an ideologically higher status over other languages, thus encouraging new forms of capitalism and endorsing the practice of homogeneity (Phillipson, 1999, p.274). In the same vein, it is argued that “language ideology represents statements of identity” (Cummins, 2000, p.xi). With regard to the context of Saudi Arabia, it is argued that if English can be a threat to the Arabic language, then it can also be a threat to the Arabic and Muslims identity (Elyas, 2008a, b), which may not be the true reflection of the Islamic view on learning other languages (Elays and Picard, 2010). Therefore, this article aims to evaluate the linguistic situation in Saudi Arabia in response to the spread of English and the tension this might have created with the Arabic Language to compete with English over gaining access to power and politics in different domains.

Keywords: Arabic, Identity, Media, Saudi Arabia, economy ideology

Attitudes of Almajmaah University Undergraduate Nursing Students toward Older People’s Care (Published)

The aim of this study was to investigate attitudes of Saudi Arabia nursing students towards care for older people and, their intention and willingness to provide care for this population in the future. Nursing students at a Saudi Arabian university were sampled for the study. A cross section of the students (n = 250) completed the modified Kogan’s ‘Attitudes towards Older People Scale’ (1960) and data was analysed using SPSS (v.20). Findings indicate that nursing students have positive attitudes towards older people and that these positive attitudes are influenced by the Saudi socio-cultural context that promotes extended family structure with one or more older persons in most family units. Despite these positive attitudes, Saudi nursing students are unwilling to choose professional care of older people as a career path. Since this reluctance could be influenced by the dearth of educational content that improve students’ knowledge about the care needs of older people, the study recommends the establishment of educational programmes within nursing curriculum that promote a better understanding of older people’s care needs and thus enhance the value of caring for older people professionally.

Keywords: : Older People, Attitudes, Nursing, Saudi Arabia

Is Oil Forever? Saudi Government Revenue Diversification is Now Necessary (Published)

This research aims to identify the potential government revenue diversification sources in Saudi Arabia. The purpose behind this was the fact that the Saudi economy rely on oil as main source of export and fiscal revenue. That said, the shock in oil prices directly affect government revenue. The current Saudi economic model has weaknesses due to its over-reliance on oil revenue. Therefore, an increasing economic divarication is paramount as it would reduce exposure to volatility and uncertainty in oil market. To achieve above stated aim, secondary data is collected from the Saudi Ministry of Finance, IMF, world bank and OPEC from 2000- 2015. The data analysis approaches used in this research is a great contribution to knowledge as it covers three main analysis tools: Trend analysis, Correlation and Contribution analysis. Trend analysis revealed that although Saudi revenues are showing an increasing trend but the high proportion of oil revenues cause a fall in total revenue due to dropping oil prices in global market. This finding was further supported by correlation analysis. The results show strong positive correlation between total revenue, oil revenues and non-oil revenues before financial crisis 2007-2008 however, the situation changed to a negative correlation between total revenues and non-oil revenue sector signalling to a presence of revenue diversification effort. Similarly, the correlation between oil prices and revenues show high positive correlation but negative correlation with production proving the fact that oil production increases in Saudi Arabia when oil prices drop to cover the revenue need of the economy. These results led the researcher to examine the potential sources that can help Saudi policy makers to diversify revenues and reduce revenue volatility. Contribution analysis is employed to examine the proportion of other sectors in total revenues. Investment, document fee and taxes are recognized as main predictors of total revenues other than oil revenues. This research concluded that revenue diversification is necessary not only for Saudi economy but the results can be generalized to those economies too which are relying on only one or few revenue sources. The study shows great implications for policy makers, government and authorities responsible for stabilizing the economy

Keywords: Diversification, Revenues, Saudi Arabia, oil

Teaching English as a Foreign Language: The Case of Saudi Arabia (Published)

This paper aims to describe English language teaching as a foreign language in Saudi Arabia. It highlights the nature of the curriculum, teaching procedures and materials. The paper critically reviews the teaching methods, qualifications in addition to concepts related to culture and society.

Keywords: English, Learning, Method, Saudi Arabia, Teaching

Acquisition of Wh-Questions in English by Saudi English Majors in Najran University (Published)

This study analyzes question formation errors in English made by EFL majors in Najran University – KSA. The aim of the study is to find out the types and causes behind making such errors. For this purpose, the researcher has designed a wh-question generating instrument. After identifying the categories of errors, the data analysis has shown agreement with similar previous studies. The most common error types in forming wh-questions in English are: auxiliary omission, wrong question word, aux.-subject inversion, Wrong auxiliary and many others.Our study has also revealed that some of the errors are due to grammar incompetence required for question formation, while others can be attributed to structure dissimilarities of the two languages.

Keywords: EFL Learners’, Grammar, L 1 Interference, Question Formation, Saudi Arabia

Impact of Saudi Arabia Economic Changes (Oil Shock) 2016 on Consumer Purchasing Habits; With Special Reference to Retail Shopping In KSA (Published)

Consumer behaviour is a complex phenomenon, consisting of a set of decision-making processes, economic determinants and market incentives. The complexity of the buying processes of consumers may be largely linked to a sensation that ‘s hard to predict and control. However, consumers are a primary source of income for business organisations, so knowing their behaviour has a great importance for the survival of business and market prosperity. For this, the researcher focuses primarily on highlighting the effects of the current economic recession (oil shock) of Saudi Arabia among the behaviour of consumers, in particular for household goods. An explorative research followed by descriptive research has been taken. Primary data has been obtained through a close-ended questionnaire, and it was collected using online Google form and the personal basis from the consumer of Saudi Arabia during January 2017 March 2017. Following receiving the data, it was examined with deceptive statistics. Chi2 test at P. Value 0.05, correlation coefficient has been utilised to check the validity and reliability of the hypothesis, and results were interpreted accordingly in the article.  It was investigated that the majority of the respondents had a negative impact of the current economic crisis on the household purchase. Besides, it was also found that there was a variation in opinion among the respondents regarding the changes of their household consumption and expenses before and after the economic crisis (Oil shock).

Keywords: Consumer Behavior, Consumer Perception, Economic Crisis, Household, Oil Shock, Retailing, Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabian Educational Reforms: A Road from Traditionalism to Modernization (Published)

People are the true wealth of any nation.  Adequately prepared and well educated, they can push a country towards development and prosperity.  With this in mind, the Saudi Arabian government has always believed that developing the nation’s citizens is not only an investment but a sacred duty too. Yet, it has faced social resistance in implementing change for fear of losing national identity to globalization, which is felt through the current debates in the media and official arenas.  But the country is working hard to reach a platform of modernized ideas and beliefs that the majority can agree on. Then Saudi Arabia will be able to rise to the level of the developed countries without losing its culture nor identity. In this Study, the author utilized a descriptive method in order to provide a brief description of the country’s demographic characteristics, trends in education before and after 1953, and indicated the Saudi philosophy of education upon which everything else in the educational system is built through presenting the structure of the educational system including policies.  Issues related to general education, special education and post-school education are presented. Major developments in the Saudi educational system after 1953 in general, and 1990 in specific will be discussed.  Finally, government efforts to overcome current educational issues will be delineated to demonstrate how the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia will be able to move forward towards modernization without jeopardizing its religion, language, culture, or identity.

Keywords: Educational Reforms, Modernization, Saudi Arabia, Traditionalism

The Buying Pattern of Energy Drink and its Use among the Young Generation of Saudi Arabia (Published)

Energy drink intake has to turn into a favorite exercise around the world, in particular among the younger generation. In Saudi Arabia, there are significant limitations in energy drinks – in abstract, tastes, advertising, the attention of sponsorship, are not permitted,” however, it is not limited to the use of social media. The core purpose of this study is to investigate the consumption patterns of energy drinks among young people in Saudi Arabia even after partial restrictions on the promotion of energy drinks. This method of the research was used an exploratory approach in nature with the data collection through survey method (Maxim, 1999) were gathered from the respondents. A self-administered structured questionnaire was developed using survey monkey online services.  After getting the responses, the data were edited, tabulated and analyzed using descriptive statistics (Frequency distribution) through the excel sheet and the result was explained accordingly. The result reveals that there is a trend of widespread use of energy drinks among young people, especially students in the age group 23-27 (72.10%). It also indicates that there is a high level of social acceptance of energy drink consumption in the region. The respondents showed a tendency towards buying decisions of it, but between the choice of brands, a certain degree of loyalty was shown. There is a call of some awareness program to increase the knowledge among the youth about the consumption of energy drinks and their effects on health.

Keywords: : Energy Drinks, Buying Pattern, Consumer Behavior, Power Drink, Saudi Arabia, Youth

Determination of Injury under the GCC Common-law on Antidumping, Countervailing Measures and Safeguard Measures and its Rules of Implementation (Published)

Anti-dumping investigations consist of two major stages. The first stage involves identification of whether the product under the investigations is being dumped. Once the investigative authority finds that the product is being dumped, it moves the second phase, injury determination. While significant experience has been gained in the first stage, the second stage came to the scrutiny relatively recently. Indeed, in earlier times the majority of anti-dumping investigations were terminated at the first stage. Only few anti-dumping complaints reached the second stage. However, with the proliferation of anti-dumping investigations in the United States and the EU, many anti-dumping complaints now reach the injury determination stage. Due to this developed many of the concepts of injury determination has been clarified. However, some of them remain vague and ambiguous. The current paper looks at these concepts and attempts to explain them.The vast majority of the existing research on anti-dumping understandably focuses on the US and the EU anti-dumping laws. Recently, scholars began paying more attention to the development of anti-dumping laws in China and India. There is also the research covering anti-dumping legislation in Australia, Canada, Mexico, and Brazil and so on. However, very little research is available on anti-dumping laws of the States belonging to the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). There are few works that mention the GCC Common Law on Law on Antidumping, Countervailing Measures and Safeguard Measures and its Rules of Implementation (GCC Common Law). These works, however, do not provide any in-depth analysis of the GCC Common Law provisions. The current paper aims to address the research gap by focusing on injury determination provisions contained in the GCC Common Law.


Keywords: Anti-Dumping, Gulf States, Saudi Arabia, WTO

The Adequacy of the Common Law of the GCC to Protect the Saudi Domestic Manufacturing Industry from International Trade Dumping Practices: A Critical Evaluation of the Protection System (Published)

The Practice of dumping in the global market is clearly of concern to all trading States, whether importers or exporters. It is a form of price discrimination and unfair competition, affecting a broad range of competing interests, both national and foreign, and products in the captive market. What protects the Gulf market in general, and the Saudi market in specific, from these injurious practices are the legal provisions of the GCC ‘Common Law on Antidumping, Countervailing Measures and Safeguard Measures and its Rules of Implementation’. Since the adoption of the GCC Common Law in 2003, almost all dumping complaints did not proceed further than the investigation stage. One possible explanation that might be provided is that there might be no real dumping problems in Saudi market. However, this explanation is difficult to accept, especially because Saudi Arabia had experienced the existence of the problem even before adopting the free market system by becoming a WTO member. Therefore, the aim of this research is to identify the gap between the theory and the application. This requires an investigation of the adequacy of the Common Law so that it can provide a sufficiently protective framework to the Saudi market against the dumping problem. It also requires exploring how the law is applied.

Keywords: Dumping, Gulf States, Saudi Arabia, WTO

The Influence of Reading Comprehension on Reading Fluency (Published)

This paper presents an argument regarding whether Arabic language is useful in supporting the learning process of English language in Saudi Arabian classes. The paper address the literature review in the area regarding languages as supportive tools in learning English. Finally, the paper conclude that Arabic language is of extreme importance and act as a supportive tool for learning English language. Arabic language is very important for the process of learning English especially for English beginners.

Keywords: Arabic, Education, English Language, Saudi Arabia

How Can In-Service Development Take a Part in Saudi English Teacher Development? (Published)

This paper presents a solution to how in-service development in Saudi Arabia can enhance the lack of English language proficiency of Saudi Arabian EFL teachers. The paper examines the problem and mentioned that a lack of English language proficiency and development was an issue that needed to be addressed. In the literature review particular theories were reviewed, which helped to explain the issues that the KSA is currently facing with a solution suggested.

Keywords: Education, English as Foreign Language, Saudi Arabia

Does Arabic Language Act As a Supportive Tool for Learning English in Saudi Arabian Classes (Published)

This paper presents an argument regarding whether Arabic language is useful in supporting the learning process of English language in Saudi Arabian classes. The paper address the literature review in the area regarding languages as supportive tools in learning English. Finally, the paper conclude that Arabic language is of extreme importance and act as a supportive tool for learning English language. Arabic language is very important for the process of learning English especially for English beginners.


Keywords: Arabic, Education, English Language, Saudi Arabia

Overview of Zakat Application, Taxes, Sharia Law and Undeveloped Lands in Saudi Arabia (Published)

This paper seeks to give a clear understanding of Zakat application, taxes, and highlights their explanation according to Sharia law. Moreover, this paper gives a comprehensive example of undeveloped lands in Riyadh city in Saudi Arabia. 

Keywords: Saudi Arabia, Sharia, Taxes, Undeveloped land, Zakat