Tag Archives: sanitation

Assessment of Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Practices among Households in Southern Nigeria (Published)

Cross River State recorded that 46.4% and 42.1% are still using unimproved source of drinking water and sanitation facilities respectively, leaving about 100 million people without access to improved sanitation? The aim of this study was to assess water supply, sanitation and hygiene practices among households in Akpabuyo Local Government Area, Cross River State, Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional study was adopted for the study. Data were generated using a semi-structured questionnaire from 400 respondents which were selected using multi-stage sampling technique. An observational checklist was used to conduct an assessment of the availability, functionality and use of WASH facilities. Data generated were synthesized, entered and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Version 24.0) and results were presented in simple percentages, tables and charts. The result obtained in this study showed that 172 (43.0%) households have access to improved drinking water source and borehole with hand pump was the main source of water supply for households. Type of toilet facilities use in households were mainly; pit latrine 190 (47.5%) and swat flush 85 (21.2%). Method of household solid waste disposal were mainly; open dumpsite 166 (41.5%), burning 101 (25.3%) and throwing into the bush 81 (20.3%). Most respondents 386 (96.5%) practice hand washing mostly after eating, 318 (79.5%) before eating and 284 (71.0%) after handling children’s faeces. It was also observed that 357 (89.2%) houses had no drainage system, 313 (78.3%) have waste storage facility, 325 (81.3%) have refuse dumpsite and 358 (89.5%) did not have odour of excreta in the surrounding. It was recommended that rural communities should synergize with government at all levels and other relevant stakeholders to ensure adequate provision of WASH facilities in their communities.

Keywords: Water, hand washing, households, hygiene practice, sanitation


The environment is increasingly characterized in terms of a crisis situation. The unique and complex characteristics of the environment entail social, political, and economic implications in its management. This paper describes the responsibilities of urban management institutions toward an efficient management of the environment in accordance with the constitution and national policies on the environment, but in practice, their operations are limited due to weak finances and little expertise in environmental management. Therefore, the community seems to have taken over the management of their environment in terms of water supply and sanitation service in a disorderly manner. The paper highlights the current state of these services and their institutional framework in Lafia town, and calls for a partnership approach in managing these urban problems. The paper also evaluates existing partnership strategy in line with good governance norms and the challenges in Lafia town. This paper finally recommends ways of addressing the challenges.

Keywords: Management, Partnership, sanitation, urban governance

Poverty, Sanitation and Public Health Nexus – Implications on Core Residential Neighbourhood of Akure, Nigeria (Review Completed - Accepted)

The thrust of this paper is to investigate the inter-relationship among poverty, environmental sanitation and public health with a view to establish its implication on residential neighbourhoods of Akure urban centre. The study examines the city core area as a case study. It summarizes and interprets findings from empirical survey of some residential buildings randomly selected within the study area through the use of questionnaire survey, direct observation, photo prints, housing demographic and facility surveys, while health records were obtained from the few available health institutions in the area. Research variables investigated include socio-economic lifestyle of residents, source of water supply, condition of sanitary facilities, quality of housing, and various health hazards experienced. Findings affirm the area as a typical slum environment. It also shows that health of individuals cannot be considered in isolation without considering the socio-economic base, building and the environment in which they live. The paper, therefore, recommends socio-economic revitalization, public enlightenment, environmental and health education, enforcement of environmental sanitation laws and re-introduction of old sanitary inspectors as follow-up strategies to sustain any renewal effort been proposed in the area.

Keywords: Akure, Poverty, public health, residential core, sanitation, slum dwellers