Tag Archives: Sanctions

Jungle Justice: A Peak of Failure of Humanity (Published)

The state of anarchy is deemed as a state of lawlessness or a situation where the state machinery is not functioning following the laws of the state. In such a state, anything goes, people tend to put their selfish interest over and above that of the state. Human beings are the major character in any given state, the fact that human beings are inherently selfish or modify as being self-centred implies that there should be in any given society a code of conduct to guide the activities of human beings in the society. These codes of conduct cover all foreseeable aspects of human endeavours and equally contain the sanctions that will be meted on anyone who breaches the provisions of the code. There are certain factors in human society which suggest that human beings cannot at all time without overt strict checks and balances follow the codes as provided. Thus, human beings, though not all at a time, may likely contravene the codes provided. When the contravention occurs, the state machinery has to take appropriate measures to sanction the contravener. However, it is observed that the members of the public do not always give the state the room to take the appropriate measures as provided by the law. The members of the public take the laws unto their hands and accord punishment following their taste against the alleged offender. That is done despite the eternal law of humanity, which states that everyone is innocent until proven guilty by a competent court of law. The argument is that the conducts of the public tend to show how humanely depraved society has turned out to be. To this end, this paper discusses the issues of jungle justice in view of it being the peak of failure of humanity; with penchant interest in Nigeria as an entity.

Keywords: Sanctions, anarchy, humanity, jungle justice, state machinery

Infringements and Sanctions in Albanian Customs Code (Published)

The importance of customs legislation is not only in the financial aspect, but also in the aspect of national and international security. Albanian Customs Code, (The Code) has been in the most part harmonized with the European Union Customs Code (UCC).It is important to underline that some of the provisions have been adapted to national legislation and to national trade development. Even in the EU, member states have harmonized customs legislation, but the enforcement, including supervision, control, investigation, prosecution and application of customs sanctions remains in the will of Member States. The interpretation of the customs rules may vary between countries and the practical application differs, based upon historically developed national principles, habits and local guidelines. That’s why customs legislation may remain significantly fragmented along states, which in many cases can create additional costs for economic operators and consumers. Albania, in order to approach and modernize the customs legislation and align it with the UCC, has adopted Law no. 102/2014 “Albanian Custom Code”. From 1st of June 2017, the Code is totally into force with all the provisions that are compatible and partially compatible to the UCC, based on the specified characteristics listed above. Sanctions for custom infringements currently remain a national matter. These sanctioning systems are based upon national legislation, national policies and legal culture with respect to controls, prosecution and sanctions.

Keywords: Custom Legislation, Infringements., Sanctions