The Mojo, Dodgy, And Dingy Dominance of Domestic Deeds on Foreign Direct Investment in Emerging and Transition Economies (Published)
Insufficiencies of empirical research were found regarding the flow of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) to Emerging and Transition Economics (ETEs) as compared to other economies. This study was designed to analyst domestic deeds that positively, negatively, and horridly affected the flow of FDI to ETEs and determine if they were the same for all ETEs. The results paralleled existing FDI literature including extensive and established theories. First, bivariate and multiple regressions analysis were conducted to determine whether ETEs domestic deeds (political stability, domestic credit, level of GDP-ETEs, level of corruption, and availability of mineral resources) significantly impact on the inflow of FDI to their countries. The correlation amongst GDP and FDI was significant (r =.91, p < .01), political stability was significant (r =-.23, p <.05), and availability of domestic credit was significant (r =.27, p < .05). Additionally, analysis on regional deeds variables (telephone lines and RI) revealed that telephone lines was a robust predictor of FDI (ß = .38, p < .05) and RI (ß = .57, p < .05).
EXPLORING THE IMPACT OF RELIGION ETHICS, AGE FACTORS, INCOME LEVEL, PROFESSIONAL, EDUCATIONAL, AND GENDER PERCEPTIONS ON TAX EVASION BEHAVIORS: A COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH (Published)
A current survey is lacking on the impacts of religion ethics, age factor, income level, profession, educational, and gender perceptions on the growth of related issues of tax evasion and the impact on the official economy. This quantitative, non-experimental research was to examine the perceptions of people regarding the activities of tax evasion and consequently, its insinuations on official economies. Tax evasions have been of increasing concern among government officials, policy makers, and social scientists. In the past, discussions were on; size and growth of tax evasion activities, currently, attention is being strained on people’s perceptions towards tax evasion and related issues for several reasons. Unemployment is rising, with the attendant problems of financing public expenditure, there is also a global anxiety about the present economic crisis and social policies. Policy makers and politicians have become increasingly aware of the need to solve problems associated with tax evasion both at the state and the national level. Insinuations from the study are made to encourage economic policy-making and to identify areas in which additional research is particularly warranted.
ASSESSING THE IMPACTS OF PERSONAL AND SOCIETAL NORMS AND PUBLIC STATUS ON TAX MORALE AND SHADOW ECONOMY BEHAVIORS: A WORLDWIDE APPROACH (Published)
More and more people around the world are operating businesses off the data grid in order to avoid payment of taxes. The boom in underground economies leave governments insufficient revenue to provide adequate public services, which include health care, roads, education, or even better tax collection. Numerous literatures exist on the single aspect of the hidden economy focusing on the size, causes, consequences, characterizing of its presence, a current study is lacking on the impacts of people’s perception on the growth of shadow economy. It is likely that this dearth of research on the impacts of peoples’ perception regarding underground economy activities in the past is the result of the difficulties in providing reliable official indicators for direction of intended government policy measures. Presently, attention is being drawn on people’s perceptions towards the shadow economy. This research study was conducted to address these limitations relating to underground economic activities from peoples’ perspective.
Research experts on countries that are transiting from one economic state to another (transition countries) and developing countries have claimed that a large part of economic activities were done within the shadow. In applying the estimation techniques for measuring underground economy for the period 1995–2008, the results indicated the size of shadow activities to be 35–44% of GDP for developing economies, 21–30% of GDP for the countries transiting from communist to capitalist economy (transition economies) and 14–16% of GDP for the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) economies. For advance economies, the value of underground activities grew from 7.9% of GDP in 1976 to about 16% in 2008. Since 2005, academic and political debate on development finance and development aid has raised the issue that shadow economy in countries worldwide is becoming larger than can be imagined, consequently, the need to be concerned about its composition.
THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN CORRUPTION, POVERTY, AND THE RISING UNDERGROUND ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES IN DEVELOPING ECONOMIES- A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF NIGERIA (Published)
An explanation and exploration is given concerning issues pointedly concerned with the impacts of: underground economy on corruption; and the relationship with poverty level in developing economies. This relationship was the particular linkage such that quite often shadow economy and corruption are seen by researchers as twins, who need each other or fight against each other. Most countries of the world, including the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Netherlands, and Nigeria in particular, a large amount of government revenue are derived from taxes. This revenue inevitably shrinks through underground economy and corrupt practices. Therefore, shadow economy has been adjudged the most formidable attendant human practice that reduces the revenues owed to the government, consequently, shadow economy induced poverty in developing economies. Since 1990, problems of shadow economy have become a major concern for governments and policy makers, which therefore, caused increased attention among researchers, economic communities, and social scientists
THE SIZE OF THE TAX EVASION PROBLEMS ON SELF-EMPLOYMENT INCOME: AN EXAMINATION OF EFFECTS OF TAX POLICIES ON COMPLIANCE (Published)
Income tax evasion is a significant problem faced by most of the countries around the world. The phenomenon interferes with economic efficiency, socially desirable income distribution, long term economic growth, and price stability. Therefore, a reform strategy to increase tax compliance with a concerted, long term, coordinated, and comprehensive plan is required. It is also vital that tax administrators ensure that every compliance policy instrument at their disposal is use as effectively as possible. The intent of this study was to consider the implications of the increase of tax evasion which has been a source of big concern to policymakers. Issues, such as tax compliance costs and revenue maximizing taxation have also been analyzed. This paper pulls together the various strains of research to illustrate the current state of knowledge regarding the impacts of tax evasion on the economy and to identify areas in which additional research is particularly warranted.