Irrigation Water Quality Assessment of Shallow Quaternary Alluvial Aquifer Systems in Ogbia, Bayelsa State, Nigeria (Published)
Study of groundwater quality has been undertaken in Ogbia, Bayelsa State, Nigeria to assess the suitability of groundwater for irrigation. Knowledge of the effect of irrigation water on soil properties is very important in the area in order to maintain good soil productivity. This study therefore is aimed at determining whether the groundwater in the study area can be used for agricultural purposes. The research was based on the result obtained from the calculated Sodium Adsorption Ratio (SAR). The SAR is the most useful parameter used in the determination of the suitability of the groundwater of any area for agricultural purposes. The calculated SAR for groundwater ranges from 3I.06 to 65.23mg/l, indicating that the groundwater samples, showed low salinity and very high sodium water for irrigation purposes for most soils and crops with danger of development of exchange sodium and salinity. This shows that the groundwater samples are not suitable for irrigation. High SAR values (>I0) could cause sodium to replace adsorbed calcium or magnesium, thereby damaging the soil structure.
Effect of Chemical, Organic and Biological Fertilizers on Protein Concentration and Protein Electrophoretic Profiles of Wheat Plants Irrigated with Seawater (Published)
Wheat plants grown under 0%, 20% and 40% of seawater, 0, 100, 250 and 500 kg/ha of urea as chemical fertilizer; Rhizobium and Azotobacter as biofertilizer; and 0, 5, 10 and 20 kg/ha of humic acid as organic fertilizer. Soluble, insoluble and total proteins as well as RAPD-PCR were evaluated. To obtain reliable molecular markers for response to salinity in such genotype, RAPD banding patterns by using two primers. It was found that low concentration (20%) of seawater caused an observed increase in soluble protein. While, high concentration (40%) of seawater caused a significant decrease in soluble and insoluble proteins as well as total proteins. Biological and organic fertilizer treatments increased total proteins even at 40% seawater treatment as compared with unfertilized plants at the same level of seawater. The results of RAPD analysis showed that the two primers (OPUPC-75 and OPA18 could efficiently align genomic DNA of wheat. Approximately 88 bands (AF) were amplified under different treatments using the two primers. Monomorphic and polymorphic bands ware present in all individuals, and the mean percentage of polymorphic bands for all treatments was 76.2%, with molecular sizes ranging from 350 to 1900 pb. It was observed also that eight bands of the 88 commonly detected in all the samples, so it could be the specific genus bands of Triticum aestivum species. It seems that the extensive polymorphism detected among seawater and fertilizertreatments elevated the degree of change occurring in DNA sequences
Biochemical and Physico-Chemical Characterization of Majidun River Water, South-West, Nigeria (Published)
Biochemical and physico-chemical characteristics of Majidun River were studied to investigate its microbial composition in relation to bacteria load and physico-chemical parameters. Water samples were weekly collected (October, 2013 – January, 2014) for analysis on total bacterial count, biochemical test and physico-chemical parameters following standard procedures. Data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance to find out the significant difference of the total microbial load and chemical contaminants in the water body. Total colony forming unit (Cfu) of bacterial in the river was highest in descending order CA > MCA > PCA > MSA and ascending order as MCA < MSA < CA < PCA at the first and second serial dilution respectively. Biochemical test showed the presence of Staphylococcus species, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus species, Salmonella species and Baccillus species in the river. Physico-chemical parameters mean concentrations was recorded for pH (6.200 ± 0.12 – 6.948 ± 0.08), total alkalinity (9.300 ± 0.03 – 9.352 ± 0.04), TDS (2647.000 ± 12.81 – 2666.000 ± 4.30), salinity (2073.000 ± 22.23 – 2117.000 ± 27.09), conductivity (3.712 ± 0.03 – 3.734 ± 0.03), COD (98.774 ± 0.03 – 98.816 ± 0.03), BOD (25.616 ± 0.04 – 25.634 ± 0.02), DO (7.056 ± 0.01 – 7.098 ± 0.01), chloride (4250.000 ± 1.58 – 4252.000 ± 4.04), total hardness (344.000 ± 1.05 – 347.000 ± 3.58), phosphate (11.902 ± 0.03 – 11.942 ± 0.02), sulphate (6.204 ± 0.01 – 6.248 ± 0.02) and nitrate (8.614 ± 0.01 – 8.656 ± 0.03). There were great variabilities in physico-chemical parameters and microbial load in Majidun River as a result of different human activities around the river water which might makes it to be unsafe for human consumption if not adequately purified.