The research subject is the analysis of international interaction between the Russian Federation and the People’s Republic of China since the late 20th century to the present time within the upcoming new prospects of long-term cooperation. The author makes a brief review of the recent history of interrelations between the two counties and forecasts their development for the nearest future within the adopted joint program “One Belt and One Road”. This project is based on the “complementarity” principle, i.e. the unification of advantages of China and Russia thus forming modern largescale “development partnership”. This study is based on a set of scientific methods, including the historical, institutional, system and comparative methods of scientific analysis. The scientific novelty of the study consists in the fact that the political science problem under consideration reveals the new understanding of the vectors of development of relations of the two largest world powers. Particularly, the author considers the role of China in realization of the largest projects of the Eurasian Economic Union in the context of economic decline in Russia and other countries, close to Russia, caused by the Western sanctions. In the context of the possible narrowing of the EAEU’s potential, China’s project of “One Belt – One Road” can naturally compensate Russia’s demand for effective partnership. A special author’s contribution to the study of the topic is the conclusion that in the contemporary world, the alliance of Russia and China can define many vectors of development of world politics for the nearest decades.
Emergence of transformation in world system followed by the breakdown of the East and the development of the field of collective and individual competitions among the governments in universal and regional levels and development of convergence processes in the behavior of the governments have prepared the requirements of alteration in analytical field and components and geopolitics effectiveness in the 3rd millennium; consequently, Islamic Republic of Iran and Russia Federation reinforce and strengthen mutual security and defensive cooperation based on the perception of their interior and exterior potentials. In fact, these two countries have numerous reasons and motivations for cooperation in the field of security and defense considering common and strategic benefits particularly in the field of Caspian Sea, Central Asia, Afghanistan, and Syria; as a result, defensive and security cooperation between Iran and Russia, has a vital and effective role in the strategies of two international and regional powers upon current equations and future transformations of the universe and region in such a way that strategic experts consider it as “a very significant transformation”, “initiation of basic alterations” and “the beginning of a novel structure in the middle east”; consequently, the current research tends to assess pleasant, possible and probable scenarios in the relation of the mentioned countries while re-identifying defensive and security cooperation between Iran and Russia.