Tag Archives: Rural

Demystifying Women’s Apathy Towards Rural Community-Based Cooperative Societies in Nigeria: An Empirical Insight (Published)

The main thrust of this paper was to examine women’s apathy towards rural community-based cooperative societies in Nigeria. The study specifically examined the types of cooperatives in the study area, the reasons for women’s membership of cooperatives, reasons for women’s apathy towards cooperatives and the socioeconomic determinants of women’s involvement in cooperative societies in rural communities. The study was carried out in Cross River State, Nigeria. The population of the study comprised all rural women in the study area. The respondents consisted of 145 randomly selected rural women. Data were collected with the aid of a validated structured questionnaire and interview schedule. Data obtained were analyzed using mean, mean deviation, ranking and probit regression model. The result of analysis revealed that different cooperative societies exists in the area, women join cooperatives for various reasons such as access to loan/grants, to attract government support, access to farm input, access to educational opportunities, among others. It was also noted that women’s apathy towards cooperatives is associated with their lack of land ownership right, domestic responsibilities, and poverty etc. The age, marital status, level of education and occupation of women were significantly related to their participation in cooperatives. It was recommended among others that government should provide credit facilities to rural women to enhance their financial autonomy and participation in cooperative societies.

Keywords: Cooperative Societies, Nigeria, Rural, Women, apathy

Power Generation Technology with Solar PV-Biogas in Rural Areas of Eastern Java (Published)

Increasing human activity has an impact on energy needs. Electrical energy is the most dominant type of energy used daily. the increase in electricity demand in East Java was due to an increase in industrial activity in several cities in East Java, such as Surabaya, Mojokerto, Sidoarjo. Meanwhile, the electrical energy needs of several rural areas in East Java, such as in Bodowoso, Bangkalan, Sumenep have not been fulfilled due to geographical factors. The solution to fulfillment of electricity in rural areas can utilize the potential of alternative energy, such as solar energy and biogas. The high potential of solar energy and biogas can be used as an energy source for solar PV-biogas hybrid power plants. The aim of the study was to study the application of a solar PV-biogas power plant model in rural areas. The research method of the solar PV-biogas hybrid power plant is carried out in several stages to assess the potential for the application of hybrid power plants in rural areas in eastern Java. The research method uses a 100 Wp solar PV hybrid system model and 1 KW biogas generator set by analyzing the potential of electricity produced on average per day. The results of the study of the analysis of the potential application of solar PV-biogas power plants show the configuration of the power plant model of generating diesel PV-biogas generators produced by solar PV electric power 1.26 KW per day and 1,244 KW biogas generator with a total electrical energy of 2.50 KW / day. Electric energy consumption per family head is an average of 1 KWh / day with the application of a solar PV-biogas hybrid power plant still with a surplus of 1.50 KW of energy, so the model of solar PV-biogas hybrid generator has a good effective and efficient level to be applied in rural Java east

Keywords: Biogas, Electricity generation, Environmentally, Rural, solar PV

The Implementation of the Rural Agribusiness Effort Program (Raep) Towards Rice Farming Income in South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia (Published)

The research aimed to assess the impact of the Farmers Group Joint (FGJ) in implementing the RAEP and analyzed the activities of agribusiness and development programs in Maros Regency, South Sulawesi Province, Indonesia. The object to be measured was the impact of the development of rural agribusiness of rice farming by farmers. The research used a survey method with interview technique. The samples were selected through a simple random sampling technique by taking as many as 10%, so that the respondents consisted of 52 farmers. The data used were primary and secondary data. The research results revealed that the implementation of the RAEP on the performance of the FGJ was quite effective. The performance aspects of the FGJ members included the level of interest and the level of strength. The parts of these levels were categorized effective. The implementation of the program showed a value of -15.778 with a significance of 0.000 < 0.05, H1 was accepted, so that there was a difference in the level of farmers before and after the implementation of the RAEP. The average of the farmers’ income before the program was IDR 15,553,192.31, while after the program the average of income was IDR 18,791,826.92. Thus, the average of difference value was IDR 3,238,634.61 or 20.82%.  And, the income from the total cost showed that part of the farmer’s income was the value of -14.126 with a significance of 0.000 < 0.05, H1 was accepted, so that there was a difference in the level of income in the RAEP. The average of income before obtaining a program fund was IDR 11,763,124.81 per harvest, while after the program the average was IDR 14,681,875.00 per harvest. Thus, the average of difference was IDR 2,918,750.19 or 24.81%.

Keywords: Farmers Group, Farming Income, Rural, agribusiness

The Rural To Urban Migration Decision in China: An Empirical Investigation (Published)

This paper explores the determinants of rural to urban migration decision in China. We use Logit models to examine the effect of a variety of different factors on individual migration choice. The empirical analysis is based on the data of Chinese Household Income Project (1995). We find that males are more likely to migrate. Age has an inverted-U shaped effect on migration. Marriage has a negative significant effect on migration. The rural individuals with professional school and middle professional school educational levels are less likely to migrate. Household head in the family is more likely to migrate. Membership of Communist Party or national ethnic minority has a negative effect on migration decision. Individuals with non-farm working experiences are more likely to migrate. Finally, some policy implications are derived based on the findings.   

Keywords: Human Capital Investment, Individual Characterises, Migration Decision, Rural, Urban

Settler- Indigene Relations in Nigeria, 1920- 2014 (Published)

This study highlights the interaction between settler migrant farmers and their host societies in the Western cocoa producing areas and some food producing areas of central part of Nigeria between the 1920s and ­­­­2014. The choice of date is informed by the time of the introduction of commercial cocoa production in Western Nigeria while 2014 is the year in which the dislocation of the peace in the food producing area, occasioned by the Chibok girls kidnap saga began. Using extant literature and field data in the study areas, the paper asserts that contrary to popular generalisations in some literature that ethnicity, economic interest, cultural and religious differences have engendered conflicts among indigene-settler relations, the people in our study area have coexisted peacefully. The paper examined the geo-economic imbalance in the distribution of resources which necessitated migration; the common need for capital formation to exploit the resources; use of non-economic methods like kinship ties, ethnic affiliations, and some customary obligations have remained important indicators in the rural social and economic life. It is the observation of this paper that the rural farming societies of our investigation, though an agglomeration of different ethnic nationalities, yet maintained a symbiotic economic and social cooperation in a system-devised method of absorbing the shocks and sometimes strained relationship among them, in a participatory way.

Keywords: Farmers, Indigene, Labour, Migration, Rural, Settler

Xenophobia in Iraqi EFL Learning Context (Published)

This study is an attempt to investigate Iraqi EEL learners’ conception of xenophobia and whether it has a negative effect on their learning English as a foreign language. The study hypothesizes that: (1) it is fair to speculate that xenophobia has been at least partially responsible for hindering deep-level learning and students who undergo xenophobia are likely to be pessimistic as regards the foreign language, (2) learners’ attitudes toward English as a foreign language differs depending on whether they are rural or urban, (3) the disposition of female learners towards the term xenophobia differs in comparison to that of male learners. To this end, a questionnaire is administered to 50 Iraqi undergraduate EFL learners at the University of Babylon/College of Education for Human Sciences/Department of English during the academic year (2016-2017) by which students were asked to report on their perception and interpretation of the term xenophobia.

Keywords: EFL Learners’, Gender, Rural, Urban, xenophobia

Training Needs of Rural Fisherfolks: A Case Study of Itu Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria (Published)

The study ascertained the training needs of rural fisherfolks in Itu Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria. Data, obtained using multi-stage sampling procedure, were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results revealed that fisherfolks in the study area can be categorized into the following four classes based on their activities: fishers, boat and gears owners, fish sellers/vendors and helpers. The most desired training need for fisherfolks in the fishers category is training on improved fish catching methods using modern fishing gears and the most desired training need for fisherfolks in the boat and gears owners’ category is training on machineries/equipment maintenance; training on fish preservation methods and training on proper fish handling were the most desired training needs of fisherfolks in the fish sellers/vendors category and helpers category respectively. It is recommended that training interventions/programmes targeted at rural fisherfolks by Governmental and Non-Governmental agencies in Akwa Ibom State take cognizance of the identified key training areas in the study to ensure the success of such efforts.

Keywords: Akwa Ibom, Fisherfolks, Needs, Rural

A Study on the Diel Activity of Myriapods (Diplopoda, Chilopoda) In Natural and Anthropogenically Influenced Habitats (Published)

The present paper provides the results of a study on the diel activity of millipedes and centipedes from two different in terms of anthropogenic impact sites located in northeastern Bulgaria. The presumed differences in the diel activity of myriapods were tested using various statistical methods: the criterion of Kolmogorov, 2 criterion of uniformity, Pearson’s normalized correlation coefficients, and the multivariate regression analysis. . The results show that the diel surface activity of the established species depends on the degree of illumination (number of hours in a day), the air and the soil temperature. However, the activity was not affected by relative humidity, active seasons, and the degree of anthropogenic impact. The diurnal activity conducted in urban and natural habitats confirmed the nocturnal nature of the established species, which are most active in the time interval from 10:00 pm to 4:00 am. This activity is likely to have endogenous nature and it is controlled by internal physiological factors, but its duration may vary according to the changes in the environmental conditions.

Keywords: Activity, Bulgaria, Circadian Rhythms, Rural, Urban

Impact of Illiterate Rural Migrant Workers on the Effectiveness of Construction Safety Induction in Lagos State Nigeria (Published)

Demand for housing, factory buildings and other social infrastructural development in the major urban cites around the world are ever on the increase. To meet the high demand of labour force required, contractors often employ illiterate rural migrant workers that drift from rural areas to cities for greener pasture. These categories of construction site workers have poor understanding of English and therefore contribute to a disproportionate number of site fatalities and injuries on sites. This study aimed at investigating the extent to which these illiterate rural migrant construction site workers impact on the effectiveness of construction safety induction training on sites. The study examines the demographic data of the illiterate rural migrant construction site workers, construction H&S legislation and language used in conducting site safety induction training to the workers. Questionnaire survey was then structured from literature and administered to workers with the aid of interpreters. This was followed by interviews conducted with site supervisors. Data was electronically manipulated using MS Excel. From the analysis, the study revealed that about 64.5% of the general workers are rural migrant workers with no basic education and trade qualifications. The study further revealed that poor understanding of spoken English among the rural migrant workers contribute to site injuries and fatalities. Nevertheless, there is lack of commitment on the part of contracting organizations, particularly among the medium and small sized companies in conducting safety induction training to workers. The study concludes that H&S is an important issue in the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) all over the World. The Act emphasizes the importance of employee education pertaining to H&S of the work environment regardless of whether the employee is educated or illiterate. The study therefore recommends that contractors conduct site H&S induction training to workers whether they are temporary or permanent; and that safety induction training should be conducted in local language of the rural migrant workers.

Keywords: Construction, Health and Safety Induction, Illiterate, Lagos, Migrant Workers, Rural

Seasonal Analysis of Atmospheric Pollutants Concentrations in Urban and Rural Land use Areas of Rivers State, Nigeria. (Published)

The study examined the seasonal urban-rural difference in atmospheric pollutant concentration in Port Harcourt region. Sampling was performed at four different sites with two having urban and rural characteristics respectively, with the aid of multi-gas sampler and hand held weather tracker during the wet, transition and dry season from 2010-2011 on the bases of 24-hour continuous measurement. Data collected were analysed using t-test at p = 0.05. Findings showed that the pollutants (in urban and rural areas) with significant concentrations during the dry season were PM10 (384.0 ± 32.6 and 259µg/m3 ± 41.7 µg/m3), SO2 (1.4 ± 0.0 and 0 mg/m3 ± 0 mg/m3) and CH4 (61.4 ± 3.8 and 0 mg/m3 ± 0 mg/m3); while in the wet season they were PM10 (101 ± 4.7 and 33.6µg/m3 ± 0.7µg/m3), TSP (155.2 ± 15.5 and 42..3µg/m3 ± 1.2 µg/m3) and CO (26.2 ± 0.2 and 17.5 mg/m3 ± 0.4 mg/m3). For the transition period, the pollutants (in urban and rural areas) with significant concentrations were PM10 (215.7 ± 20.0 and 146.2 µg/m3 ± 19.2 µg/m3), TSP (287.7 ± 45 and 204.6µg/m3 ± 55.4 µg/m3), NO2 (0.2 ± 0.0 and 0mg/m3 ± 0mg/m3) and CH4 (20.5 ± 0.6 and 0.9mg/m3 ± 0.0mg/m3). The slashes and burn method of farm preparation and fuel wood which is used for cooking contributed to the high concentration of TSP, PM10 and CO during the dry season and this is why there was no significant difference in their concentration with the urban areas. In general however, there were significant differences in the mean concentrations of PM10, TSP, NO2, and CO; PM10, TSP, NO2 and CH4 during the wet, transition an dry seasons respectively at 95% significant level between the rural and urban areas for the seasons at p = 0.05. Regular monitoring of pollutants especially at the rural areas of Port Harcourt region with heavy hydrocarbon industrial foundations is advocated.

Keywords: Atmospheric Pollutants Concentration, Port Harcourt, Rural, Seasons, Urban

THE ROLE OF FARMERS SOCIAL NETWORKS AND RURAL RADIO IN CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION IN OWERRI WEST AREA OF IMO STATE, NIGERIA. (Published)

The study was aimed at analyzing and ascertaining the role of farmers social networks and rural radio in climate change adaptation in Owerri West Area of Imo-State. The specific objectives were to (a) describe the socio-economic characteristics of the respondent farmers in the study area, (b) ascertain farmers awareness of climate change, (c) describe the effects of climate change on agricultural activities of the respondents, (d) identify the various social networks in the study area and (e) identify roles of various social networks and radio in farmers adaptation to climate change. A simple random sampling method was used to select one hundred and twenty (120) farmers for the study. Frequency distribution percentages and mean were used in the analysis of data collected. Results of the study showed that majority of the respondents (76.7%) were males with a mean age of 53years. Results indicate that all the respondents were very much aware of climate change. Farmers also ascertain high rainfall, flooding, decrease in crop yield, erosion, storage losses and hot temperature (hot heat) as their observation due to effects of climate change. Social networks include cooperatives, age grades, town unions and religious groups etc. Some recommendations include: (a) Education of farmers about climate change and their modern adaptation measures which could be achieved by organizing seminars, conferences and programmes on climate change regular for them. (b) Government should link and collaborate with the farmers organization (social networks), research institutions and meteorological centres that will help in order to access information, design appropriate and affordable adaptation measures to climate change.

Keywords: Adaptation, Climate Change, Farmers, Radio, Rural, Social Networks

USE OF MOTIVATIONAL EXPRESSIONS AS POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT IN LEARNING ENGLISH AT PRIMARY LEVEL IN RURAL AREAS OF PAKISTAN (Published)

The aim of this mixed method research is to find out positive changes in learning and behaviour of the rural students of the nursery class in the government schools at Tehsil Jaranwala district Faisalabad province Punjab Pakistan, by the use of motivational expressions within the context of behavioral perspective of Skinner’s (1957) model of reinforcement. The research makes hypothesis that the ELT teachers in government schools at primary level in Pakistan use such techniques and strategies that do not motivate the students in learning English as a second language (ESL) and the young learners especially in rural context are less interested to learn English because teachers do not motivate the students in the class. The researcher took a nursery class for 37 days and tried to motivate the students to learn English and establish their interest in studies through different motivational expressions. Moreover, a survey questionnaire, consisting of 13 close ended questions and 07 open-ended questions was distributed among 28 male and female teachers of different schools to know their views and comments regarding motivation and use of motivational expressions. The results were presented quantitatively in the form of tables, graphs, frequencies and percentages. The findings of the research results show that more than 75 % teachers agree to the view that there should be motivation in the learners and the use of different motivational strategies, for example motivational expressions, enhance the students’ interest in learning. Moreover, the classroom teaching and the questionnaire results show that students become more motivated towards learning English language when they are positively reinforced in the class. The results can be used as key for seeing the reasons behind the failure of the students at schools as well their misconduct in the society and can be a key to make improvements in both the areas.

Keywords: English as a second language (ESL), English language teaching (ELT), Motivation, Pakistan, Rural, Students, behaviourism, reinforcement

SEASONAL ANALYSIS OF ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTANTS CONCENTRATIONS IN URBAN AND RURAL LANDUSE AREAS OF RIVERS STATE, NIGERIA. (Published)

The study examined the seasonal urban-rural difference in atmospheric pollutant concentration in Port Harcourt region. Sampling was performed at four different sites with two having urban and rural characteristics respectively, with the aid of multi-gas sampler and hand held weather tracker during the wet, transition and dry season from 2010-2011 on the bases of 24-hour continuous measurement. Data collected were analysed using t-test at p = 0.05. Findings showed that the pollutants (in urban and rural areas) with significant concentrations during the dry season were PM10 (384.0 ± 32.6 and 259µg/m3 ± 41.7 µg/m3), SO2 (1.4 ± 0.0 and 0 mg/m3 ± 0 mg/m3) and CH4 (61.4 ± 3.8 and 0 mg/m3 ± 0 mg/m3); while in the wet season they were PM10 (101 ± 4.7 and 33.6µg/m3 ± 0.7µg/m3), TSP (155.2 ± 15.5 and 42..3µg/m3 ± 1.2 µg/m3) and CO (26.2 ± 0.2 and 17.5 mg/m3 ± 0.4 mg/m3). For the transition period, the pollutants (in urban and rural areas) with significant concentrations were PM10 (215.7 ± 20.0 and 146.2 µg/m3 ± 19.2 µg/m3), TSP (287.7 ± 45 and 204.6µg/m3 ± 55.4 µg/m3), NO2 (0.2 ± 0.0 and 0mg/m3 ± 0mg/m3) and CH4 (20.5 ± 0.6 and 0.9mg/m3 ± 0.0mg/m3). The slashes and burn method of farm preparation and fuel wood which is used for cooking contributed to the high concentration of TSP, PM10 and CO during the dry season and this is why there was no significant difference in their concentration with the urban areas. In general however, there were significant differences in the mean concentrations of PM10, TSP, NO2, and CO; PM10, TSP, NO2 and CH4 during the wet, transition an dry seasons respectively at 95% significant level between the rural and urban areas for the seasons at p = 0.05. Regular monitoring of pollutants especially at the rural areas of Port Harcourt region with heavy hydrocarbon industrial foundations is advocated.

Keywords: Atmospheric Pollutants Concentration, Port Harcourt, Rural, Seasons, Urban

TRANSPORT COST AND THE USE OF FAMILY PLANNING AS A PREVENTIVE AND PROMOTION HEALTH CARE STRATEGIES IN RURAL AKWA IBOM STATE OF NIGERIA (Published)

The study was designed to ascertain the effects of transport cost on the use and continuous use of family planning services in rural Akwa Ibom State. To achieve the purpose, two hypotheses were formulated. Data were collected from a representative sample size of 952 respondents who were women aged 15-49 years. Simple percentages were used in data analysis while Chi-square (X2) and Phi-Coefficient (ɸ) were used in testing the research hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The results show that there were significant relationships between transport cost and use and continuous use of family planning services in the study area. The implications of the findings were discussed and strategies for combating the effects of transport cost on utilization of family planning services in rural Nigeria in general and the study area in particular were suggested.

Keywords: Cost, Health, Preventive, Promotive, Rural, Transport, Utilization

THE ROLE OF FARMERS SOCIAL NETWORKS AND RURAL RADIO IN CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION IN OWERRI WEST AREA OF IMO STATE, NIGERIA (Review Completed - Accepted)

The study was aimed at analyzing and ascertaining the role of farmers social networks and rural radio in climate change adaptation in Owerri West  Area of Imo-State. The specific objectives were to (a) describe the socio-economic characteristics of the respondent farmers in the study area, (b) ascertain farmers awareness of climate change, (c) describe the effects of climate change on agricultural activities of the respondents, (d) identify the various social networks in the study area and (e) identify roles of various social networks and radio in farmers adaptation to climate change. A simple random sampling method was used to select one hundred and twenty (120) farmers for the study. Frequency distribution percentages and mean were used in the analysis of data collected. Results of the study showed that majority of the respondents (76.7%) were males with a mean age of 53years. Results indicate that all the respondents were very much aware of climate change. Farmers also ascertain high rainfall, flooding, decrease in crop yield, erosion, storage losses and hot temperature (hot heat) as their observation due to effects of climate change. Social networks include cooperatives, age grades, town unions and religious groups etc. Some recommendations include: (a) Education of farmers about climate change and their modern adaptation measures which could be achieved by organizing seminars, conferences and programmes on climate change regular for them. (b) Government should link and collaborate with the farmers organization (social networks), research institutions and meteorological centres that will help in order to access information, design appropriate and affordable adaptation measures to climate change.

Keywords: Adaptation, Climate Change, Farmers, Radio, Rural, Social Networks