The study examined strategies for empowering rural women for sustainable livelihood in Etche Local Government Area, Rivers State. the objectives include to determine factors constraining women empowerment and to identify strategies for women empowerment in the study area. The study adopted a descriptive survey design. A multistage sampling technique was used to select 300 women (respondents). Data were collected using structured questionnaire designed in sections, with each section eliciting responses in respect of the research questions. A test-retest method was used to ascertain the reliability of instrument with r-value of 0.85. data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics. A minimum mean of 2.50 was accepted as the standard. The findings showed that majority (43%) of respondents were between the age range of 40-49 years, majority (40%) had basic education while crop family processing was the primary occupation of majority of the respondents. The study also showed that women empowerment were constrained by gender discrimination; poverty; traditional belief, among others as equal opportunities for access to resources and elimination of discrimination to work and wages were some of the identified strategies for women empowerment. The study recommended that government at all levels should formulate policies that would encourage equal distribution of power right across gender.
Women’s empowerment has become a global affair in the contemporary discourse for the developing countries. This paper examined the impact of microcredit schemes on women’s empowerment in rural Bangladesh. The data was collected from 324 rural women borrowers on a field study from four villages in the district of Tangail, Bangladesh through the administration of questionnaires. This research was conducted during the period of July to December 2016. Data was also collected from women non-borrowers to compare the impact between borrowers and control-group. Data has been analyzed by SPSS software and also Logistic Regression is used to estimate the impact of empowerment of women after participating in microcredit program. A significant outcome of this research showed that microcredit has a positive impact on women’s empowerment and promotes microcredit borrowers women to participate in the household decision-making process through acquiring the self-esteem, business skills and confidence level.
Assessments of Income Generating Activities of Rural Women in Hawul Local Government Area of Borno State, Nigeria (Published)
The study was conducted to assess the income generating activities of rural women in Hawul local government area Borno state, Nigeria. The specific objectives were to identify the socio-economic characteristics, assessed the level of participation in income generating activities of that the respondents in the study area. Primary data was used for the study, the data was obtained through the use of structured questionnaire administered to 210 respondents and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics like multiple regression. The result revealed that respondents were experienced 82%, had household sizes of 5 and 10 persons. Fishing in wet season, crop production in wet season and cotton weaving in dry season were major income generating activities. Marital status (5.388), family size (.005) and education (1.433) had significant relationship with income generating activities among respondents. The study recommended that Nigeria government should establish as well as place recognition on technical schools to enhance women’s skills in their occupation. This is evident in higher percentage of the women’s involvement in vocational jobs. Also, government policy makers should enact laws that will facilitate women’s access to loan and land ownership.
In the rural areas of Pakistan, farmers mostly use their family labor including women for production of crop. Rural women are very active in diverse agricultural activities (i.e. pre-harvest, post-harvest). Women from poor households engage in a variety of income-generating and expenditure-saving activities. They are twice as likely as men to be involved in agriculture related activities. Pakistani rural women lagging behind as compared to other developed country women due to many reasons like lack of training programme about new techniques of crop production, lack of resources, little support by agricultural extension services etc. Therefore, the present study is designed to assess the training needs of the rural women in crop production Karor Lal Eson, District Layyah, which will be helpful for extension organizations to develop their future strategies for rural women. A sample of 120 female respondents was selected randomly from Tehsil Karor Lal Eson, District Layyah through multistage random sampling technique. The results of the study revealed that a large majority (70.8%) of the respondents were illiterate. A simple majority (50.8%) of the respondent spent 2 to 4 hours in land preparation and sowing practices. While about one-fifth (19.2%) of the respondents spent 2 to 4 hours in broad casting of seed/fertilizer. However, in crop production activities including broadcasting of seed/fertilize (mean= 3.35), plant protection (mean= 3.52), thinning (mean= 2.84) and grading of seeds (mean= 2.81) they were less competent and need to educate and train about these tasks.
Socio-Economic Factors and Awareness of HIV/AIDS among Rural Women Farmers in Ebonyi State, Nigeria: Issues for Guidance and Counselling (Published)
This study analyzed the socio-economic factors influencing rural women farmers’ awareness of HIV/AIDs in Ebonyi State, Nigeria: Issue for Guidance and Counseling. The study employed purposive and multi-stage random sampling techniques in the selection of 120 rural women who formed the sample size. Primary data used for the study were collected using questionnaire and interview schedule. These were analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics. The result of data analysis showed that the rural women in the study area were knowledgeable on mode of transmission of HIV/AIDs such as: mother-child (94.17 percent), sexual-intercourse ( 93.33 percent), contaminated sharp (piercing ) instruments (91.67 percent) among others. The result of multiple regression analysis indicated a coefficient of multiple determination R2 of 68.5 percent. This means that about 68.5 percent of the level of awareness of HIV/AIDs in the area was influenced by the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents. Most of the explanatory variables were statistically significant and met a priori expectations. The null hypothesis tested at 5 percent level of significance was rejected. This shows that there is significant relationship between the socio-economic characteristics of the rural women and their level of knowledge of HIV/AIDs in the area, hence the need for counseling. Further analysis identified lack of adequate information (3.64), remoteness of the rural areas (3.10), cost of information access (3.12) among others as major obstacles which limited rural women knowledge of HIV/AIDs in the area. It was concluded that improving the knowledge of HIV/AIDs through constant guidance and counseling would minimize the spread of the scourge and as well improve the contribution of the women to agricultural development in the study area. Necessary recommendations such as improving the educational status of the women farmers among others were made.
LEVEL OF PARTICIPATION AND BENEFITS OF THE NATIONAL PROGRAMME FOR FOOD SECURITY (NPFS) AMONG RURAL WOMEN IN EBONYI STATE, NIGERIA (Published)
This study assessed the level of participation and benefits of the National Programme for Food Security (NPFS) among rural women farmers in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. The National Programme for Food Security (NPFS) is a five year nationwide Programme for Food Security launched in 2001 in Nigeria with the objective to increase and stabilize food production rapidly and sustainably through the wide spread dissemination of improved technologies and management practices in areas with high potential, and to create an economic and social environment conducive to food production as well as reaching some 30,000 farming families in each selected areas (FGN, 2006) Primary data were collected through field survey with well-structured questionnaire and interview schedule and analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results obtained indicated that radio was the major source of information to majority (28.3%) of the rural women participants. More so, majority (84.40%) of the women were not involved in planning NPFS programmes. Further analysis showed that majority (56.7%) of the rural women farmers merely participated in decision making process at information receiving level. Borehole facilities (39.4%) and community seed production (36.1%) were the major components benefited by majority of the women. It was concluded that the objectives of NPFS has not been effectively realized among the rural women due to their low level of participation in programme planning and implementation. Involvement of stakeholders in planning process ensures successful implementation of programmes since their felt needs are factored in during the process.
Rural women farmers play significant role in both agricultural production and home management. Despite these roles, their saving capacity seems to have been empirically documented in Ebonyi State Nigeria. A multistage random sampling technique involving three stages was employed in the section of 180 respondents. Results showed that at 1% level of significant; household size, farm cash income, farm output and distance to nearest market were the major determinants of saving capacity. The women mainly save in non-cash way which involved saving through investment in livestock production and storage of farm produce. However, minority of the women that practice cash saving, safe keep their money in the house and lending of money to fellow needy farmers. Fear of bank failure, inadequate income due to lack of access to productive resources and low returns, high consumption rate out of available income, and bureaucracy involved in opening bank account were identified as the major constraints to rural women farmers saving capacity. The study based on the finding recommended the creation of enabling socio-economic environment that will increase the rural women farm income through market creation for farm output and subsidy in the price of farm input. Again, the rural financial intermediaries should encourage farmers to save by raising the interest paid on saving; this will discourage farmers from saving in kind or hoarding cash in the house which usually lead to loss of wealth in case of thefts, burglaries. Finally, Government and banks should create channels through which farmers especially rural women farmers can be educated on saving modalities; this will not only encourage investment and consequently their saving capacity.