Application of Ordered Logit Model to Analyze Determinants of Rural Households Multidimensional Poverty in Western Ethiopia (Published)
Rural households’ multidimensional poverty is still widespread and severe everywhere. For instance, worldwide a total of 1.45 billion people from 103 countries are multidimensional poor, most MPI poor people (72%) of them live-in middle-income countries. In East Africa, 559 million (42%) people are multidimensional poor. In Ethiopia, the new global 2018 multidimensional poverty index revealed that 49% of the Ethiopian population is multidimensional poor. A thorough analysis of the nature and determinants of multidimensional poverty is a key input for interventions to curb this horrific enemy of mankind. Thus, the general objective of the current study is an analysis of the status and determinants of rural households’ multidimensional poverty in Jimma Geneti woreda (Ethiopia). A mixed-methods approach is used to achieve the research objective. Primary data are collected from 387 randomly selected rural households using survey questionnaires. In the analysis of the data, both descriptive and inferential statistics are used. The ordered logistic regression model is employed to investigate the determinants of being multidimensional poor. Results of the descriptive analysis show that 80.1% of the sample respondents are multidimensional poor. The intensity of poverty is 66.3% and the adjusted headcount ratio is found 53.1%. Dimensionally, the living standard dimension is the highest contributor to the overall multidimensional poor of the sample households (42.5%) followed by the education dimension (36.7%) and health dimension (20.9%. Among eleven multidimensional poverty index indicators, school attendance indicators (19.9%) and years of schooling indicators (16.8%) have the highest relative contribution to the overall multidimensional poverty index of the study area. The coastal area has contributed a total of 28.1% to the overall 80.1% of the incidence of poverty. Furthermore, results of the regression analysis indicated that kebele dummy, marital status, literacy status, farm size, and membership to cooperatives of households are found significant determinants of households being multidimensional poor. Policy implications that give top priority to living standard, education, and health dimensions respectively, that benefit sample households from the coastal area and that give due consideration to significant variables in poverty reduction efforts required.
Utilization of Fresh-water Fish Species for Trado-Medicine and Health Care Services among Rural Households in Ogun State, Nigeria (Published)
Fish resources have been identified as the most valuable natural food resources for mankind due to its importance as a veritable protein and other mineral resources, which are important for normal functioning of the body system. It was on this basis that the study was carried out to investigate the utilization of fresh-water fish species for trado-medicine and health care services among rural households in Ogun State. It also described the socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents, types of fresh-water fish species used for trado-medicine and health care services, factors influencing the utilization of fresh-water fish species for trado-medicine and effects of the utilization of fish medicine on their socio-demographic characteristics. A well-structured interview schedule was used to elicit information from 80 respondents from two Local Government Areas of Ogun State using a multi-stage sampling procedure. The data collected was analysed using descriptive statistics, a 3-points Likert scale and Chi-square analysis. It was found that majority of the respondents were male, married, with mean age of 49 years with average household size of 7 people. Most of them belonged to one or more social association and had low educational background. The most common occupation of the people was herbal trading and fishing with average years of experience of 23.6 years. About 88.75 percent of the respondents were aware of the utilization of fresh-water fish for trado-medicine and health services. The common freshwater fish species used for trado-medicine were Clarias spp, Malapterurus electricus, Barilius niloticus, Gymnachus spp, Tetraodan fahaka, Heterobranchus bidorsalis, Hepsetus spp, Tilapia spp, Mormyrus spp, Calamoichthys calabaricus (Eel fish), Polypterus spp, Chrysichithys nigrodigitatus. The most common methods of administering these fish medicines were: herbal porridge (aseje), herbal bath mixture with local soap, skin incision (gbere) and lotion to be rubbed on the skin. Hence, this study revealed that the potency of fish medicine and its health benefits are the most influential factors in utilizing freshwater fish species for trado-medicine among the rural households. Age, sex, primary occupation, household size, educational background and marital status have significant relationship with the utilization of fish medicine in the study area.
This study was undertaken to identify credit constrained status of households and analyse the determinants of credit constraints in the Afigya-Kwabre District of Ghana. A multistage random sampling was used to select 166 households which comprised of 94 credit constrained households and 72 credit unconstrained households. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to elicit primary data from the respondents. The Direct Elicitation Method (DEM) was used to identify credit constrained household whilst binary logit was uused to determine households that were likely to be credit constrained. Results revealed that 57% of the households were credit constrained. Also, the results of the logit showed that sex, age, farm experience, farm size, years of formal education, household size, extension contact and distance were the major factors which significantly determine the credit constraint status of the households. In order to address the credit constrained status of the households, it is recommended that educational programs be organized by government for the households since more years of education reduces credit constraint. Credit lenders should strategically site their institutions close to the rural communities (households) to increase household credit access and reduce transaction cost. Extension workers must educate households on how they could be creditworthy to lending institutions.
IMPACT OF MICRO-CREDIT ON POVERTY ALLEVIATION IN NIGERIA – THE CASE OF ENUGU EAST LOCAL COUNCIL (Published)
Poverty has remained a global phenomenon and has defied various attempts at curbing it especially in developing countries. The high and unacceptable number of people within its grip around the world gave it a pride of place as one of the major goals of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) adopted in 2000. Poverty alleviation was a prime target of the MDGs and micro-credit was recognized as a veritable tool for tackling it. In this paper, we examined empirically the effect of micro-credit on poverty alleviation in Nigeria using some selected rural farm households in Enugu East Local Government of Nigeria. To achieve this, primary data were collected on the sources and access to micro credit; the incidence, depth and severity of poverty among the selected rural households. Appropriate descriptive and analytical tools were employed to process the data obtained. The results of the study show that poverty level is still high among the rural populace; but those that have access to micro-credit seems to have fared better than those who have no access to micro-credit. In other words, access to micro-credit has positive but not significant impact on poverty alleviation among the rural populace. The study recommends that government should intensify effort in its recent financial inclusion strategy to ensure that the rural populace has greater access to micro credits. Government should also ensure that interest rate on micro credits are affordable, the terms of the credits flexible and the conditions attached to the credit well liberalized